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Table 1 Description of parental, peer and personal variables

From: Exploring associations between parental and peer variables, personal variables and physical activity among adolescents: a mediation analysis

Parental variables Item (Parent questionnaire) Response category
Parental co-participation in PA; adapted from [31] Thinking about the past few months, how often did you and/or the co-carer do the following things together with your child? 1 = Never or rarely; 2 = Less than once/week; 3 = Once a week; 4 = About 2–3 times/week; 5 = About 4–6 times/week; 6 = Every day
- I/we did physical activity, sport or exercise together with the child
Parental logistic support for PA; adapted from [31] Mean value of two items (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90): 1 = Never or rarely; 2 = Less than once/week; 3 = Once a week; 4 = About 2–3 times/week; 5 = About 4–6 times/week; 6 = Every day; 7 = Doesn’t applya
Thinking about the past few months, how often were the following true?
- The co-carer or I took the child to sports training/lessons
- The child did sport or physical activity that the co-carer or I provided money for
Parental praise of PA; adapted from [31] Thinking about the past few months, how often was the following true? 1 = Never or rarely; 2 = Less than once/week; 3 = Once a week; 4 = About 2–3 times/week; 5 = About 4–6 times/week; 6 = Every day; 7 = Doesn’t applya
- The co-carer or I praised the child participating in physical activity, sport or exercise
Parental control of PA; adapted from [32] Mean value of four items (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.46): 1 = Disagree; 2 = Slightly disagree; 3 = Neutral; 4 = Slightly agree; 5 = Agree
Indicate how much you agree with following statements.
- If I did not guide or regulate my child’s activities, (s)he would not be as active as (s)he should be
- I think that my child should be active every day
- I am careful to make sure that my child gets enough exercise
- If my child says “I’m tired”, I try to get him/her to exercise anyway
Parental concern about PA; adapted from [32] How concerned are you about your child not getting enough physical activity? 1 = Not concerned; 2 = A little concerned; 3 = Fairly concerned; 4 = Very concerned
Peer variables; adapted from [31] Item (Adolescent questionnaire) Response category
Peer modeling of PA My closest friend does a lot of physical activity 1 = Strongly agree; 2 = Agree; 3 = Neither; 4 = Disagree; 5 = Strongly disagree; 6 = Don’t knowb
Peer enjoyment of PA My closest friend enjoys physical activity or sports 1 = Strongly agree; 2 = Agree; 3 = Neither; 4 = Disagree; 5 = Strongly disagree; 6 = Don’t knowb
Peer interest in PA My closest friend is not the sporty type 1 = Strongly agree; 2 = Agree; 3 = Neither; 4 = Disagree; 5 = Strongly disagree; 6 = Don’t knowb
Peer encouragement of PA Mean value of three items (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.70): 1 = Never/rarely; 2 = Sometimes; 3 = Often
During the past year, how often have your friends said or done this:
- Encouraged me to do more physical activity
- Encouraged me to walk to or from school or to other places
  - Encouraged me to play sports  
Personal variables Item (Adolescent questionnaire) Response category
Self-efficacy to overcome barriers; adapted from [34] Mean value of nine items (Cronbach’s alpha =0.84): 1 = Not at all sure; 2 = A bit sure; 3 = Fairly sure; 4 = Quite sure; 5 = Very sure
I could be active even…
- If there is no one to be active with
- If I don’t have enough energy to be active
- If I am not good at it
- If I had no one to take me training
- If my friends don’t take part
- If the weather is bad
- If I had a lot of homework to do
- If I were busy going out with my friends
- If others make fun of me
Perceived internal barriers; adapted from [35] Mean value of seven items (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.87): 1 = Strongly agree; 2 = Agree; 3 = Neither; 4 = Disagree; 5 = Strongly disagree; 6 = Don’t knowb
How much do you agree with the following statements?
- I don’t have enough time for physical activity
- I prefer to watch TV or play electronic games
- I don’t like physical activity
- I don’t think I’m very good at physical activity
- I don’t like how being active physically makes me feel (e.g. hot, sweaty, out of breath)
- I’m not the sporty type
- I am too lazy/ can’t be bothered
Perceived external barriers; adapted from [35] Mean value of four items (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.66): 1 = Strongly agree; 2 = Agree; 3 = Neither; 4 = Disagree; 5 = Strongly disagree; 6 = Don’t knowb
How much do you agree with the following statements?
- I don’t have anyone to be physically active with
- I have a health problem or injury that prevents me from being physically active
- I can’t afford to buy sports clothes or equipment, or pay sport/club fees
  - I think it’s too dark and cold in winter to spend more time outside  
  1. aResponse possibility 7 (Doesn’t apply) was re-coded into 1 (Never/rarely); bresponse possibility 6 (Don’t know) was re-coded into 3 (Neither).