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Table 1 Study measures and time points

From: Improving lifetime trajectories for vulnerable young children and families living with significant stress and social disadvantage: the early years education program randomised controlled trial

Study measure Entry Annual School
Hypothesis 1a) Children’s health and development outcomes    
Cognitive development    
Bayley scales of infant and toddler development III (BSID)a X X  
Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence (WPPSI) – Valid for ages 2.6-7.3b   X X
Language and socio-emotional development    
Peabody Picture Vocabulary – Valid for ages 2 + c   X X
Child health questionnaire – Valid for ages 5+; Measures functional health and well-beingd   X X
Expressive Vocabulary Test   X X
Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) questions – Items on health status, injury and hospitalisation, health care access and affordability X X X
Hypothesis 1b) Children’s academic achievement and ability    
Woodcock Johnson NU tests – Literacy and numeracye    X
Devereux Early Childhood Assessment Program (DECA) – 37 observer rated positive behaviour items (subscales are initiative, self-control and attachment)f X X X
Hypothesis 1c) Children’s emotional and behavioural regulation    
Greenspan socio-emotional growth chart (SEGC) – 35 item measure of socio-emotional milestones for ages 0–42 monthsg X   
Brief infant toddler social emotional assessment (BITSEA) – 42 item parent completed screener for social-emotional/behavioural problems for ages 12–36 monthsh X X  
Child behaviour checklist – Identifies behavioural problems; Valid 18+ monthsi   X X
Alarm baby distress scale (ADDB) – Social and interactive behaviour of infant in interaction with researcher; Valid for ages 1–36 monthsj X   
Hypothesis 2 Incidence of poor parenting    
Parent–child relationship    
Strange situation procedure (SSP) – Conducted in an unfamiliar toy-filled room consisting of a structured sequence of brief episodes of separations and reunions from primary caregiver; Valid for 8–30 monthsk X X  
Story stem assessment – Uses dolls and narrative to measure the child’s representations of their attachment relationships; Valid for ages 3+ yearsl   X X
Emotional availability scale (EAS) – 20 minutes free play between child and mother, coded for adult sensitivity, structuring, non-intrusiveness, non-hostility and child’s responsiveness; Valid for ages 0–7 yearsm X X X
Parenting, stress and attitudes    
Home observation measurement of environment (HOME)–Semi-structured interview and direct observation of home environment by trained assessor to measure parent responsiveness and acceptance of the child, organisation of the environment, learning materials, parental involvement, variety of experiencen X X X
The parenting daily hassles scale – 20 items where parents rate the frequency and intensity/impact of experiences that can be a ‘hassle’ to parentso X X X
Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) Parenting Practices: Parent self-efficacy and harsh parenting scales X X X
K6 – Measures non-specific psychological stress in adultsp X X X
Rand depression screener – 8 item self-report that screens for depressive and dysthymic disordersq X X X
Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) questions – Items on use of health and welfare services, employment and experience of neighbourhood X X X
  1. Notes for Table 1:
  2. aBayley N: Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. 3rd edition. New York: The Psychological Corporation – Harcourt Brace Jovanovich; 2006.
  3. bWecshler D: Wecshler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. 3rd edition. San Antonio TX: PsychCorp; 2004.
  4. cDunn L, Dunn D: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. San Antonio TX: PsychCorp; 2007.
  5. dWaters E, Salmon L, Wake M, Wright M, Hesketh K: Child Health Questionnaire Australian. Authorised Adaption of the Child Health Questionnaire. Melbourne: Royal Children’s Hospital.
  6. eWoodcock RW, McGrew KS, Mather N: Woodcock-Johnston III. Itasca IL: Riverside Publishing; 2001.
  7. fLeBuffe PA, Naglieriri JA: The Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA): A measure of within-child protective factors in preschool children. NHSA Dialog: A Research-to-Practice Journal for the Early Childhood Field 1999: 3(1):75–80.
  8. gGreenspan SI: Greenspan Socio-Emotional Growth Chart: A Screening Questionnaire for Infants and Young Children. San Antonio TX: PsychCorp; 2004.
  9. hCarter AS, Briggs-Gowan M: BITSEA: The Infant-Toddler and Brief Infant Toddler Socio-Emotional Assessment. San Antonio TX: PsychCorp; 2005.
  10. iAchenbach TM: Integrative Guide to the 1991 CBCL/4-18, YSR and TRF Profiles. Burlington VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychology; 1991.
  11. jGeudeney A, Fermanian J: A validity and reliability study of assessment and screening for sustained withdrawal in infancy: The Alarm Distress Baby Scale. Infant Mental Health Journal 2001: 22(5):559–75.
  12. kAinsworth MDS, Blehar MC, Waters E, Wall S: Patterns of Attachment. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum; 1978.
  13. lEmde RN, Wolf DP, Oppenheim D (eds): Revealing the Inner Worlds of Young Children: The Macarthur Story Stem Battery and Parent–child Narratives. New York NY: Oxford University Press; 2003.
  14. mBiringen Z, Robinson J, Emde RN: The Emotional Availability Scales. 3rd edition. Fort Collins CO: University of Colorado, Department of Human Development and Family Studies; 1998.
  15. nElardo R, Bradley R, Caldwell BM: The relation of infants’ home environments to mental test performance from six to thirty-six months: A longitudinal analysis. Child Development 1975: 46:71–6.
  16. oCrnic KA, Booth CL: Mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of daily hassles of parenting across early childhood. Journal of Marriage and the Family 1991: 53: 1043–50.
  17. pKessler RC, Barker PR, Colpe LJ, Epstein JF, Gfroerer JC, Hiripi E, Howes MJ, Normand ST, Manderscheid RW, Walters EE, Zaslavsky AM: Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry 2003: 60(2):184–9.
  18. qKemper KJ, Babonis TR: Screening for maternal depression in pediatric clinics. American Journal Dis Child 1992: 146(7):876–8.