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Table 3 Multilevel models for poor mental well-being in 14,583 employed men aged 15–65 nested within 38 year-cohorts in 19 European countries (ESS 2004/5 and 2010)

From: Structural and intermediary determinants of social inequalities in the mental well-being of European workers: a relational approach

  Reference model b (SE) Model 1 b (SE) Model 2 b (SE) Model 3 b (SE) Model 4 b (SE)
Fixed effects      
Constant 3.094 (0.086)*** 3.194 (0.096)*** 3.108 (0.097)*** 2.809 (0.096)*** 3.165 (0.096)***
Individual characteristics      
Age
15-29 years (ref.)
30-49 years 0.294 (0.041)*** 0.305 (0.041)*** 0.301 (0.041)*** 0.270 (0.042)*** 0.298 (0.041)***
50 years and older 0.221 (0.046)*** 0.228 (0.046)*** 0.248 (0.046)*** 0.234 (0.047)*** 0.217 (0.046)***
Social Class      
Unskilled workers (ref.)
Semi-skilled workers -0.108 (0.054)* -0.052 (0.053) -0.038 (0.054) -0.096 (0.054)
Expert workers -0.020 (0.061) 0.127 (0.062)* 0.144 (0.062)* -0.007 (0.061)
Non-expert supervisors -0.185 (0.059)** -0.045 (0.060) -0.098 (0.059) -0.172 (0.059)**
Expert supervisors -0.147 (0.065)* 0.038 (0.068) -0.003 (0.067) -0.123 (0.065)
Non-expert managers -0.247 (0.091)** -0.060 (0.092) -0.130 (0.091) -0.224 (0.091)*
Expert managers -0.160 (0.077)* 0.040 (0.080) -0.021 (0.079) -0.138 (0.077)
Psychosocial work environment     
Low skill discretion 0.090 (0.008)***
Low autonomy 0.034 (0.007)***
High psychological demands 0.087 (0.006)***
Employment conditions  
Contract type
Permanent (ref.)  
Non-permanent -0.045 (0.049)
No contract 0.037 (0.075)
Income
Sufficient household income (ref.)  
Contributory earner with insufficient household income 0.619 (0.104)***
Main earner with insufficient household income 0.818 (0.046)***
Irregular and/or unsocial hours   0.039 (0.007)***
Employment status   
Full-time (ref.)   
Part-time -0.012 (0.081)  
Involuntary part-time 0.159 (0.082)
Lack of training 0.053 (0.034)  
Employment relations  
Lack of support 0.536 (0.077)***
Random effects a     
Level 1 variance 3.379 (0.040) 3.374 (0.040) 3.289 (0.039) 3.293 (0.039) 3.363 (0.039)
Level 2 variance 0.023 (0.011) 0.023 (0.011) 0.025 (0.012) 0.020 (0.010) 0.022 (0.011)
Level 3 variance 0.105 (0.040) 0.106 (0.040) 0.105 (0.040) 0.075 (0.029) 0.105 (0.039)
- 2 loglikelihood -29612.5 -29602.9 -29419.7 -29421.1 -29578.5
  1. *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01; ***p ≤ 0.001.
  2. a All random effects are significantly different from zero at 95% confidence.