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Table 2 Multilevel models for poor mental well-being in 14,164 employed women aged 15–65 nested within 38 year-cohorts in 19 European countries (ESS 2004/5 and 2010)

From: Structural and intermediary determinants of social inequalities in the mental well-being of European workers: a relational approach

  Reference model b (SE) Model 1 b (SE) Model 2 b (SE) Model 3 b (SE) Model 4 b (SE)
Fixed effects      
Constant 3.368 (0.084)*** 3.529 (0.096)*** 3.352 (0.098)*** 3.048 (0.096)*** 3.480 (0.096)***
Individual characteristics      
Age  
15-29 years (ref.)  
30-49 years 0.246 (0.044)*** 0.247 (0.044)*** 0.248 (0.044)*** 0.258 (0.045)*** 0.240 (0.044)***
50 years and older 0.230 (0.050)*** 0.214 (0.050)*** 0.231 (0.049)*** 0.266 (0.051)*** 0.203 (0.050)***
Social Class      
Unskilled workers (ref.)  
Semi-skilled workers   -0.144 (0.056)** -0.046 (0.056) -0.099 (0.056) -0.121 (0.056)*
Expert workers   -0.181 (0.059)** 0.022 (0.061) -0.031 (0.060) -0.146 (0.059)*
Non-expert supervisors   -0.252 (0.072)*** -0.064 (0.073) -0.178 (0.072)* -0.218 (0.072)**
Expert supervisors   -0.182 (0.069)** 0.042 (0.073) -0.059 (0.071) -0.140 (0.069)*
Non-expert managers   -0.212 (0.118) 0.024 (0.119) -0.113 (0.117) -0.187 (0.118)
Expert managers -0.307 (0.100)** -0.022 (0.103) -0.158 (0.101) -0.269 (0.100)**
Psychosocial work environment      
Low skill discretion   0.095 (0.008)***
Low autonomy 0.033 (0.007)***
High psychological demands 0.069 (0.006)***
Employment conditions  
Contract type
Permanent (ref.)
Non-permanent 0.025 (0.049)
No contract 0.175 (0.082)*
Income  
Sufficient household income (ref.)  
Contributory earner with insufficient household income   0.785 (0.070)***
Main earner with insufficient household income   0.891 (0.050)***
Irregular and/or unsocial hours   0.057 (0.008)***
Employment status   
Full-time (ref.)  
Part-time   0.071 (0.044)
Involuntary part-time   0.162 (0.071)*
Lack of training   0.058 (0.035)
Employment relations   
Lack of support   0.490 (0.071)***
Random effects a   
Level 1 variance 3.664 (0.044) 3.660 (0.044) 3.586 (0.043) 3.544 (0.042) 3.648 (0.044)
Level 2 variance 0.035 (0.015) 0.034 (0.015) 0.032 (0.014) 0.029 (0.013) 0.032 (0.014)
Level 3 variance 0.088 (0.037) 0.088 (0.036) 0.090 (0.037) 0.058 (0.026) 0.087 (0.036)
- 2 loglikelihood -29338.4 -29329.3 -29185.3 -29097.5 -29305.4
  1. *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01; ***p ≤ 0.001.
  2. a All random effects are significantly different from zero at 95% confidence.