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Table 1 Description of the population studied (number and percentages) and their average score on poor mental well-being (Population in salaried employment, 15–64 years old, ESS Round 2 and 5 (weighted))

From: Structural and intermediary determinants of social inequalities in the mental well-being of European workers: a relational approach

Variables Women (n = 13,092) Men (n = 13,928)
  n % Mean poor mental well-being score Sig. n % Mean poor mental well-being score Sig.
Social class    0.000     0.048
Workers unskilled 2067 15.8 3.9   1958 14.1 3.3  
Workers semi-skilled 4626 35.3 3.6   4363 31.3 3.4  
Workers experts 2875 22.0 3.5   1892 13.6 3.4  
Supervisors unskilled 296 2.3 3.4   584 4.2 3.2  
Supervisors semi-skilled 1105 8.4 3.4   2000 14.4 3.2  
Supervisors experts 1387 10.6 3.6   1652 11.9 3.4  
Managers unskilled 92 0.7 3.5   131 0.9 3.2  
Managers semi-skilled 247 1.9 3.8   458 3.3 3.4  
Managers experts 396 3.0 3.6   890 6.4 3.3  
Age groups     0.000     0.000
15-29 years 2494 19.1 3.4   2726 19.6 3.1  
30-49 years 7200 55.0 3.7   7527 54.0 3.4  
50 or more years 3398 26.0 3.7   3674 26.4 3.3  
Psychosocial work characteristics         
Low skill discretiona    4.5 (2.4)     4.1 (2.3)  
Low autonomya    5.1 (2.6)     4.8 (2.8)  
High psychological demandsa    5.3 (3.0)     5.2 (2.9)  
Employment conditions        
Type of contract     0.000     0.000
Permanent 10237 81.4 3.6   11169 82.2 3.3  
Non-permanent 1807 14.4 3.5   1846 13.6 3.1  
No contract 529 4.2 4.1   576 4.2 3.7  
Income     0.000     0.000
Sufficient household income 11073 84.6 3.4   11975 86.0 3.2  
Contributory earner with insufficient household income 760 5.8 4.3   327 2.3 3.9  
Main earner with insufficient household income 1258 9.6 4.6   1626 11.7 4.1  
Irregular and/or unsocial working hours a    2.6 (2.2)     3.8 (2.5)  
Employment status         
Full-time 8822 67.4 3.6 0.001 12859 92.3 3.3 0.118
Part-time 3474 26.5 3.7   552 4.0 3.2  
Involuntary Part-time 795 6.1 3.8   517 3.7 3.4  
Training     0.154     0.001
Yes 6158 47.1 3.6   6143 44.2 3.3  
No 6911 52.9 3.6   7743 55.8 3.4  
Employment relations        
Support from co-workers   0.000     0.000
Yes 11939 92.6 3.6   13167 95.3 3.3  
No 952 7.4 4.2   648 4.7 3.9  
Member of trade union   0.424     0.357
Yes 2984 22.9 3.6   3277 23.6 3.3  
No 10073 77.1 3.6   10617 76.4 3.3  
Poor mental well-being a    3.6 (2.0)     3.3 (1.9)  
  1. aSE between parentheses.