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Table 1 Maternal characteristics by residential location, Kaski District, Nepal (n = 639)

From: A community-based prospective cohort study of exclusive breastfeeding in central Nepal

Characteristic Urban Rural Total p*
n (%) n (%) n (%)
  343 (53.7) 296 (46.3) 639  
Age (years)     0.07
  15 - 19 40 (11.7) 51 (17.2) 91 (14.2)  
  20 - 24 173 (50.4) 151 (51.0) 324 (50.7)  
  25 - 40 130 (37.9) 94 (31.8) 224 (35.1)  
Parity     0.29
  Primiparous 170 (49.6) 159 (53.7) 329 (51.5)  
  Multiparous 173 (50.4) 137 (46.3) 310 (48.5)  
Employment status     < 0.001
  Unemployed 249 (72.6) 260 (87.8) 509 (79.7)  
  Semi-employed 71 (20.7) 27 (9.1) 98 (15.3)  
  Employed 23 (6.7) 9 (3.0) 32 (5.0)  
Caste     < 0.001
  Upper caste 171 (50.3) 168 (56.8) 339 (53.3)  
  Janajati 97 (28.5) 41 (13.9) 138 (21.7)  
  Lower caste 72 (21.2) 87 (29.4) 159 (25.0)  
Education     < 0.001
  None 31 (9.0) 22 (7.4) 53 (8.3)  
  Primary 72 (21.0) 61 (20.6) 133 (20.8)  
  Secondary 96 (28.0) 142 (48.0) 238 (37.2)  
  College 144 (42.0) 71 (24.0) 215 (33.6)  
Place of delivery     < 0.001
  Home 29 (8.5) 63 (21.4) 92 (14.5)  
  Facility 311 (91.5) 231 (78.6) 542 (85.5)  
Method of delivery     < 0.001
  Vaginal 277 (81.2) 273 (92.9) 550 (86.6)  
  Caesarean 64 (18.8) 21 (7.1) 85 (13.4)  
Frequency of antenatal visits     0.67
  < 4 92 (26.8) 75 (25.3) 167 (26.1)  
  ≥ 4 251 (73.2) 221 (74.7) 472 (73.9)  
Breastfeeding information     < 0.001
  Yes 212 (61.8) 258 (87.2) 470 (73.6)  
  No 131 (38.2) 38 (12.8) 169 (26.4)  
Encouragement to breastfeed     0.22
  Yes 271 (79.0) 245 (82.8) 516 (80.8)  
  No 72 (21.0) 51 (17.2) 123 (19.2)  
Sex of infant     0.61
  Male 206 (60.1) 172 (58.1) 378 (59.2)  
  Female 137 (39.9) 124 (41.9) 261 (40.8)  
Breastfeeding problem     0.001
  No 244 (71.1) 172 (58.1) 416 (65.1)  
  Yes 99 (28.9) 124 (41.9) 223 (34.9)  
  1. *Chi-square test between urban and rural participants.