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Table 2 Prevalence of H. pylori infection by demographic and socio-economic variables

From: Helicobacter pylori infection in pregnant women in four districts of Uganda: role of geographic location, education and water sources

Variable (No. of women) H. pylori+ Univariate p Adjusted for location p
   % (95% CI) OR (95% CI)   AOR (95% CI)  
Location Apac (88) (Ref) 18.2 (10.2-26.3) 1.00   - -
Kawempe Health Centre (86) 60.5 (50.2-70.8) 7.02 (3.51-14.01) 0.00 - -
Mbale (107) 55.1 (45.7-64.5) 5.53 (2.85-10.73) 0.00 - -
Mbarara (105) 42.9 (33.4-52.4) 3.45 (1.78-6.70) 0.00 - -
Rakai (61) 49.2 (36.7-61.7) 4.36 (2.08-9.11) 0.00 - -
All without Apac (359) 51.8 (46.6-57.0) 4.89 (2.74-8.73) 0.00 - -
Ethnic group Lango1 (87) (Ref) 18.4 (10.3-26.5) 1.00   - -
Nkole2 (142) 46.5 (38.3-54.7) 3.85 (2.04-7.27) 0.00 - -
Gisu3 (101) 58.4 (48.8-68.0) 6.23 (3.19-12.20) 0.00 - -
Ganda4 (93) 55.9 (45.8-66.0) 5.63 (2.85-11.10) 0.00 - -
Others5 (24) 37.5 (18.1-56.9) 2.96 (1.13-7.78) 0.03 - -
Residence Rural (202) (Ref) 37.3 (30.9-44.3) 1.00   1.00  
Urban (246) 51.6 (45.4-57.8) 1.79 (1.23-2.62) 0.00 1.58 (1.06-2.34) 0.03
Age (years)6 15-19 (95) (Ref) 53.2 (43.1-63.3) 1.00   1.00  
20-24 (178) 44.9 (37.6-52.2) 0.72 (0.44-1.19) 0.20 0.71 (0.42-1.20) 0.20
25-29 (84) 42.2 (31.6-52.8) 0.64 (0.35-1.16) 0.14 0.63 (0.34-1.17) 0.14
30-34 (59) 37.3 (25.0-49.6) 0.52 (0.27-1.02) 0.06 0.51 (0.26-1.03) 0.06
35-39 (24) 45.8 (28.3-64.2) 0.76 (0.30-1.83) 0.52 0.76 (0.30-1.94) 0.56
40-44 (6) 16.7 (0.9-58.1) 0.18 (0.02-1.57) 0.12 0.24 (0.03-2.35) 0.22
Marital status Not married7 (39) 46.2 (30.6-61.8) 1.00   1.00  
Married (406) 45.3 (34.4-68.6) 0.97 (0.50-1.88) 0.93 0.91 (0.46-1.82) 0.79
Education status Primary and above (392) (Ref) 43.9 (39.0-48.8) 1.00   1.00  
None (56) 55.4 (42.4-68.4) 1.59 (0.90-2.79) 0.11 1.98 (1.08-3.63) 0.03
Parity ≤ 2 (270) 49.3 (43.3-55.3) 1.00   1.00  
3+ (176) 38.6 (31.4-45.8) 0.64 (0.44-0.95) 0.03 0.71 (0.47-1.05) 0.09
HCI8 Low (50) 52.0 (38.2-65.8) 1.00   1.00  
Medium (309) 44.7 (34.3-45.3) 0.75 (0.41-1.36) 0.34 0.81 (0.44-1.49) 0.50
High (89) 43.8 (41.9-62.7) 0.72 (0.36-1.44) 0.35 0.88 (0.43-1.81) 0.73
Water source Own tap (23) (Ref) 40.9 (20.8-61.0) 1.00   1.00  
Public tap (104) 52.5 (42.9-62.1) 2.94 (1.08-8.06) 0.04 2.71 (0.98-7.49) 0.05
Public well, borehole or spring (280) 43.3 (37.5-49.1) 2.25 (0.86-5.88) 0.10 2.90 (1.09-7.68) 0.03
River, lake, or stream (41) 48.8 (33.5-64.1) 2.70 (0.87-8.22) 0.08 5.45 (1.67-17.80) 0.01
Toilet None (8) (Ref) 37.5 (4.0-71.0) 1.00   1.00  
Flush (15) 33.3 (9.4-57.2) 0.63 (0.11-3.41) 0.59 0.39 (0.06-2.26) 0.29
Pit latrine (423) 45.9 (41.2-50.6) 1.06 (0.28-4.00) 0.93 0.86 (0.21-3.56) 0.84
Wealth Quintile Lowest (94) (Ref) 34.0 (25.2-44.1) 1.00   1.00  
Second (83) 44.6 (34.4-55.3) 1.57 (0.86-2.86) 0.15 0.85 (0.43-1.69) 0.65
Middle (89) 43.8 (34.0-54.2) 1.54 (0.84-2.85) 0.16 0.76 (0.38-1.54) 0.45
Third (88) 46.6 (36.5-56.9) 1.74 (0.94-3.19) 0.08 0.74 (0.37-1.52) 0.42
  Highest (93) 54.8 (44.7-64.6) 2.44 (1.33-4.48) 0.00 1.00 (0.49-2.04) 0.99
  1. 1Lango and Acholi; 2Nkole, Kiga, Nyarwanda, Bafumbira; 3Gisu, Banyole, Luuya, Bagwere; 4Ganda, Baruuli, Soga, Bakooki; 5Tooro, Alur, Nubbi, Iteso, Lugbara, Tanzanian, Nyoro, Bakonjo, Karamajong, Japadhola. 6Mean age = 24.1 years, range 15–42 years. 7Not married includes never married, widowed and divorced.
  2. 8HCI = Household Crowding index: ratio of the number of persons in the household to the number of rooms in the house. Ref = Reference category.