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Table 2 Health check attendance in the past 2 years by predisposing, enabling, and need factors

From: Determinants of health check attendance in adults: findings from the cross-sectional German Health Update (GEDA) study

  Men Women
  % (95% CI) p-value % (95% CI) p-value
Total 50.8 (49.6–52.0)   49.8 (48.8–50.9)  
Predisposing factors     
Age     
 35–44 years 32.7 (30.5–34.9)   36.1 (34.4–37.8)  
 45–54 years 48.8 (46.5–51.2)   48.5 (46.6–50.4)  
 55–64 years 61.0 (58.3–63.6)   54.7 (52.5–56.9)  
 65–74 years 64.7 (61.8–67.4)   59.7 (57.2–62.2)  
 75+ years 55.9 (51.2–60.6) <0.001 52.4 (48.8–56.0) <0.001
Socioeconomic status     
 Low 45.0 (41.7–48.4)   45.5 (42.9–48.3)  
 Medium 51.1 (49.5–52.6)   51.3 (50.1–52.6)  
 High 55.9 (53.9–57.9) <0.001 50.6 (48.7–52.5) <0.001
Marital status     
 Single 36.0 (32.9–39.3)   40.2 (37.2–43.2)  
 Separated/divorced/widowed 47.2 (44.0–50.4)   51.4 (49.5–53.3)  
 Married and living together 53.8 (52.4–55.3) <0.001 50.2 (48.8–51.5) <0.001
Enabling factors     
Statutory health insurance     
 AOK 47.8 (45.4–50.3)   47.3 (45.2–49.4)  
 EK 55.0 (53.1–56.9)   51.3 (49.9–52.8)  
 BKK 50.1 (47.5–52.7)   50.6 (48.1–53.0)  
 Other 47.8 (44.1–51.5) <0.001 50.4 (46.8–53.9) <0.05
Social support     
 Poor 43.6 (40.4–46.8)   45.5 (42.9–48.2)  
 Intermediate 51.9 (50.1–53.6)   50.5 (49.0–52.0)  
 Strong 54.0 (51.8–56.1) <0.001 51.9 (50.1–53.7) <0.001
Type of residential area     
 Rural and sparsely populated 50.2 (47.1–53.2)   48.0 (45.3–50.6)  
 Rural with concentration signs 52.3 (49.3–55.3)   49.6 (46.9–52.2)  
 Urban 52.5 (50.5–54.5)   51.0 (49.3–52.7)  
 Metropolitan 48.4 (46.0–50.8) n.s. 49.7 (47.8–51.6) n.s.
Need factors     
Obesity     
 No 50.2 (48.8–51.6)   49.6 (48.4–50.8)  
 Yes 53.6 (50.7–56.5) <0.05 52.7 (50.0–55.3) <0.05
Physical activity     
 Active 52.0 (50.1–54.0)   51.5 (49.8–53.2)  
 Slightly active 50.5 (48.5–52.5)   51.5 (49.8–53.2)  
 Not active at all 49.1 (46.4–51.7) n.s. 46.3 (44.2–48.5) <0.001
Smoking     
 Non-smoker 55.2 (53.7–56.7)   52.9 (51.7–54.2)  
 Smoker 41.2 (39.0–43.4) <0.001 40.0 (38.1–41.9) <0.001
Alcohol consumption     
 Never 48.3 (44.9–51.9)   45.0 (42.7–47.2)  
 Moderate 51.9 (50.2–53.5)   51.9 (50.5–53.3)  
 Hazardous 50.0 (47.8–52.3) n.s. 51.1 (48.8–53.3) <0.001
Fruit/vegetable consumption     
 Low 42.7 (40.3–45.0)   38.9 (36.3–41.5)  
 Medium 53.2 (51.6–54.8)   51.0 (49.6–52.4)  
 High 59.6 (56.1–63.0) <0.001 54.6 (52.6–56.7) <0.001
Self-rated health     
 Very good/good 49.6 (48.1–51.1)   48.1 (46.8–49.3)  
 Fair/poor/very poor 53.1 (50.8–55.3) <0.05 52.8 (50.9–54.6) <0.001
Outpatient care use     
 Low 35.1 (33.0–37.2)   33.2 (31.2–35.2)  
 Medium 57.2 (55.5–58.9)   54.1 (52.7–55.4)  
 High 60.2 (57.0–63.3) <0.001 58.3 (55.7–60.8) <0.001
  1. CI = confidence interval, n.s. = not significant (p > 0.05), AOK = local health insurance funds, EK = alternative health insurance funds, BKK = company health insurance funds.