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Table 1 Baseline demographics, treatment characteristics, and household expenditures of TB patients with poor treatment outcomes, N = 193*

From: Household income and poor treatment outcome among patients with tuberculosis in Georgia: a cohort study

  Poor TB treatment outcomea Favorable TB treatment outcome Total N (%)
  N (%) N (%) N = 193
  38 (19.7) 155 (80.3)  
Age (years)    
Mean (STD) 42.4 (15.1) 36.1 (14.9) 37.4 (15.1)
Median (IQR)c 42.5 (26.0) 33.0 (21.0) 35.0 (21.0)
Sex    
Female 8 (21.1) 36 (23.2) 44 (22.8)
Male 30 (79.9) 119 (76.8) 149 (77.2)
Household ethnic group    
Georgian 36 (94.7) 137 (88.4) 173 (89.6)
Other 2 (5.3) 18 (11.6) 20 (10.4)
Residence location    
Rural 3 (7.9)) 24 (15.5) 27 (14.0)
Urban 35 (92.1) 131 (84.5) 166 (86.0)
Education    
Some secondary 6 (15.8) 27 (17.4) 33 (17.1)
Completed secondary 20 (52.6) 68 (43.9) 88 (45.6)
Some college or greater 12 (31.6) 60 (38.7) 72 (37.3)
Month household income    
(USD)    
Mean (STD) 93 (79.6) 171 (155.2) 156 (146.7)
Median (IQR)c 85 (94.9) 137 (133.3) 127 (131.3)
0-89.9 USD/monthb,d 18 (50.0) 41 (27.0) 59 (31.4)
90.0-162 13 (36.1) 47 (30.9) 60 (31.9)
>162 5 (13.9) 64 (42.1) 69 (36.7)
Occupation    
Employed 10 (26.3) 66 (42.6) 76 (39.4)
Unemployed 18 (47.4) 60 (38.7) 78 (40.4)
Othere 10 (26.3) 29 (18.7) 39 (20.2)
TB characteristics
TB disease, self-reported    
Not serious/moderate 14 (36.8) 75 (48.4) 89 (46.1)
Very serious 24 (63.2) 80 (51.6) 104 (53.9)
TB treatment location    
Nurse administered 19 (54.3) 82 (52.9) 101 (53.2)
Dispensary 12 (34.3) 56 (36.1) 68 (35.8)
Other 4 (11.4) 17 (11.0) 21 (11.0)
2 month AFB smearb    
Positive 10 (26.3) 7 (4.5) 17 (8.8)
Negative 28 (73.7) 148 (95.5) 176 (91.2)
Household stigma due to TB
Others feel uncomfortable    
Yes 7 (18.4) 28 (18.1) 35 (18.1)
No 19 (50.0) 75 (48.4) 94 (48.7)
Others don’t know 12 (31.6) 52 (33.6) 64 (33.2)
Others treat inferior    
Yes 6 (15.8) 17 (11.0) 23 (11.9)
No 20 (52.6) 86 (55.5) 106 (54.9)
Others don’t know 12 (31.6) 52 (33.6) 64 (33.2)
Others avoid contact    
Yes 8 (21.1) 31 (20.0) 39 (20.2)
No 18 (47.4) 72 (46.4) 90 (46.6)
Others don’t know 12 (31.6) 52 (33.6) 64 (33.2)
Any stigmaf    
Yes 8 (21.1) 34 (21.9) 42 (21.8)
No 30 (78.9) 121 (78.1) 151 (78.2)
Worry/concern among household    
A lot 33 (94.3) 127 (84.1) 160 (86.0)
Some 2 (5.7) 20 (13.3) 22 (11.8)
A little/not at all 0 4 (2.6) 4 (2.2)
Household expenditures (all figures in USD)
  Household expenditures before TB treatment  
Past month total, self-reported    
Mean (STD) 300 (474.1) 283 (208.7) 286 (279.2)
Median (IQR) 182 (181.8) 242 (212.1) 242 (193.9)
Past month total, calculated    
Mean (STD) 316 (399.3) 345 (253.4) 339 (287.0)
Median (IQR)C 236 (174.7) 303 (235.2) 283 (235.9)
Past month healthcare    
Mean (STD) 80 (93.4) 101 (105.1) 97 (103.0)
Median (IQR)C 48 (57.6) 67 (93.9) 61 (90.9)
Proportionate monthly income spent healthcare expenditure    
Mean 1.52 (2.27) 0.86 (1.04) 0.99 (1.38)
Median 0.75 (1.31) 0.53 (0.76) 0.56 (0.81)
<0.50 13 (36.1) 67 (44.1) 80 (42.6)
0.50-1.0 11 (30.6) 46 (30.3) 57 (30.3)
>1.0 12 (33.3) 39 (25.7) 51 (27.1)
  1. *193 of 202 case patients had information available on treatment outcome.
  2. aDefaulted, failed (AFB smear positive after 6 months), or death.
  3. bTwo sided Chi-Square p-value <0.05.
  4. cTwo sided Wilcoxon Rank sum p-value <0.05.
  5. dThree month average income from waves 1–3.
  6. eOther: student, retired, or homemaker.
  7. fCombined variable: any yes response from others feel uncomfortable, others treat inferior, or others avoid contact.