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Table 4 Interactions between work-related stress and educational attainment associated with domains with serious health problems

From: Associations between work-related stress in late midlife, educational attainment, and serious health problems in old age: a longitudinal study with over 20 years of follow-up

  Number of domains with serious health problems (ref. no serious problems)
1 domain 2-3 domains (Complex health problems)a
WORK-RELATED STRESS Low educationb   High education Low education   High education
  OR (CI 95%)c p d OR (CI 95%) OR (CI 95%) p OR (CI 95%)
Job demands (ref. low demands) e
Women 1.14 (0.69-1.88) ns 0.95 (0.51-1.79) 1.65 (0.80-3.42) ns 2.34 (0.71-7.70)
Men 0.45 (0.29-0.78) ns 0.81 (0.44-1.51) 0.33 (0.14-0.81) ns 1.18 (0.39-3.61)
Job control (linear  f , high values = low control)
Women 0.88 (0.62-1.24) ns 1.07 (0.80-1.43) 1.16 (0.70-1.92) ns 1.25 (0.82-1.88)
Men 1.66 (1.06-2.58) * 0.92 (0.67-1.26) 1.00 (0.55-1.80) * 2.19 (1.47-3.26)
High job strain g (ref. all others) h
Women 1.17 (0.71-1.92) ns 1.18 (0.63-2.23) 1.71 (0.86-3.40) ns 1.51 (0.62-3.66)
Men 0.69 (0.40-1.21) ns 0.76 (0.38-1.51) 0.42 (0.17-1.02) ** 3.07 (1.19-7.93)
  1. Results of multinomial logistic regressions. All analyses were adjusted for follow-up year and at baseline: age, sex, physical work environment, hours worked during previous year, an index based on all diseases and symptoms that were used to create the outcome, mental health, and mobility. The analyses were conducted separately for women and men. Results in bold have p value <0.05. aThose with serious problems in two or three health domains were classified as having complex health problems. bLevel of education was dichotomized as low education (compulsory; 6-8 years for most of the study participants) and high education (vocational, upper secondary, and university). cAbbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ns nonsignificant, p p value. dP value for how the association between work-related stress and health problems differ by level of education: *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ns = p ≥ 0.05 eFor women, the reference category was women with low job demands. For men, the reference category was men with low job demands. fIn linear representation, the ORs indicate the change in odds of each higher category of the independent variable. Job control has four categories. gHigh job strain: control was dichotomized into low and medium low vs. high and medium high. High strain = high demands and low control. hFor women, the reference category was women who did not have high job strain; i.e., who had passive (low demands/low control), active (high demands/high control), or low strain (low demands/high control) jobs. For men, the reference category was men who did not have high job strain, i.e., who had passive, active, or low strain jobs.