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Table 4 Association of environmental and socio-demographic variables with undiagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes (n = 6908)

From: Prevalence of diabetes in Northern African countries: the case of Tunisia

  Undiagnosed diabetes Untreated diabetes
   Crude associations Adjusted associations Adjusted associations    Crude associations Adjusted associations Adjusted associations
   (Model 0)1 (Model 1)2 (Model 2)3    (Model 0)1 (Model 1)2 (Model 2)3
  n %4 OR5 C.I.6 OR5 C.I.6 OR5 C.I.6 n n %4 OR5 C.I.6 OR5 C.I.6 OR5
Environment                 
Milieu 949 p = 0.23 p = 0.41 p = 0.31 468 p = 0.51 p = 0.42 p = 0.18
Urban 663 49.4 0.8 0.6-1.2 1.2 0.8-1.7 1.2 0.8-1.8 335 12.4 1.3 0.6-2.8 1.4 0.6-3.5 1.8 0.8-4.3
Rural 286 54.9 1 - 1 - 1 - 133 9.9 1 - 1 - 1 -
Region 949 p = 0.27 p = 0.54 p = 0.44 468 p = 0.28 p = 0.20 p = 0.14
Tunis 149 46.4 0.7 0.4-1.3 0.9 0.5-1.8 0.9 0.4-1.9 83 9.0 0.4 0.1-0.9 0.3 0.1-0.8 0.3 0.1-0.7
North East 105 40.6 0.6 0.3-1.1 0.6 0.3-1.2 0.6 0.3-1.3 60 15.0 0.6 0.2-1.8 0.5 0.2-1.5 0.5 0.2-1.6
North West 92 54.2 1 - 1 - 1 - 41 21.8 1 - 1 - 1 -
Centre East 209 57.4 1.1 0.7-2.0 1.1 0.6-2.1 1.1 0.6-2.2 83 10.6 0.4 0.2-1.2 0.3 0.1-0.9 0.3 0.1-1.0
Centre West 107 53.2 1.0 0.5-1.8 0.8 0.5-1.7 0.8 0.4-1.6 50 16.3 0.7 0.3-2.0 0.7 0.2-2.3 0.7 0.2-2.4
South East 153 50.1 0.9 0.5-1.5 0.9 0.5-1.7 0.9 0.4-1.7 76 12.2 0.5 0.2-1.3 0.4 0.1-1.2 0.4 0.1-1.2
South West 134 44.9 0.7 0.3-1.4 0.7 0.3-1.7 0.7 0.3-1.6 75 7.1 0.3 0.1-0.9 0.2 0.1-1.0 0.2 0.1-0.9
Familial factors                 
Family history of T2D 949 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 468 p = 0.25 p = 0.20 p = 0.25
Yes 369 42.1 0.6 0.4-0.7 0.5 0.4-0.7 0.5 0.3-0.7 214 9.8 0.7 0.3-1.3 0.6 0.3-1.3 0.6 0.3-1.4
No 580 56.9 1 - 1 - 1 - 254 13.8 1 - 1 - 1 -
Demographic factors                 
Age (year) 949 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 468 p = 0.0058 p = 0.0089 p = 0.0067
35-39 69 77.8 1 - 1 - 1 - 16 36.1 1 - 1 - 1 -
40-44 134 66.2 0.6 0.3-1.2 0.6 0.3-1.2 0.6 0.3-1.3 43 32.0 0.8 0.2-3.2 0.7 0.2-2.5 0.8 0.2-3.0
45-49 165 59.5 0.4 0.2-0.9 0.4 0.2-0.9 0.4 0.2-0.9 66 7.8 0.2 0.0-0.6 0.1 0.0-0.5 0.1 0.0-0.5
50-54 155 38.5 0.2 0.1-0.4 0.2 0.1-0.4 0.2 0.1-0.4 82 7.8 0.2 0.0-0.6 0.1 0.0-0.5 0.2 0.0-0.6
55-59 145 41.3 0.2 0.1-0.4 0.2 0.1-0.5 0.2 0.1-0.5 84 9.8 0.2 0.0-0.8 0.2 0.0-0.7 0.2 0.0-0.7
60-64 116 41.9 0.2 0.1-0.4 0.2 0.1-0.5 0.2 0.1-0.4 69 9.0 0.2 0.0-0.7 0.2 0.0-0.7 0.2 0.0-0.8
65-71 165 36.8 0.2 0.1-0.3 0.2 0.1-0.4 0.2 0.1-0.4 108 6.9 0.1 0.0-0.6 0.1 0.0-0.5 0.1 0.0-0.5
Socio-economic factors                 
Economic level of the                 
household proxy 949 p = 0.0025 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 468 p = 0.30 p = 0.25 p = 0.33
1st quintile 141 69.6 1 - 1 - 1 - 51 10.0 1 - 1 -   
2nd quintile 187 57.3 0.6 0.3-1.0 0.5 0.3-0.9 0.6 0.3-1.0 81 9.7 1.0 0.3-3.4 1.3 0.3-4.8 1.3 0.3-5.4
3rd quintile 228 44.9 0.4 0.2-0.6 0.3 0.2-0.5 0.3 0.1-0.5 124 18.3 2.0 0.7-6.2 2.3 0.6-8.7 2.5 0.6-10.3
4th quintile 203 50.5 0.5 0.3-0.8 0.3 0.2-0.6 0.3 0.2-0.6 106 7.5 0.7 0.2-2.4 0.8 0.2-2.9 0.8 0.2-3.7
5th quintile 191 42.5 0.3 0.2-0.6 0.2 0.1-0.4 0.2 0.1-0.4 106 11.7 1.2 0.4-3.8 1.0 0.2-4.1 1.1 0.2-5.4
Level of education of head of household 949 p = 0.026 p = 0.45 p = 0.33 468 p = 0.13 p = 0.93 p = 0.93
No formal schooling 373 45.0 1 - 1 - 1 - 200 7.9 1 - 1 - 1 -
Primary school 335 57.7 1.7 1.1-2.4 1.3 0.8-2.2 1.5 0.9-2.4 151 15.9 2.2 1.0-4.7 1.2 0.4-3.5 1.2 0.4-3.5
Secondary/university 241 48.3 1.1 0.8-1.7 1.0 0.5-2.0 1.2 0.6-2.3 117 12.5 1.7 0.7-3.9 1.1 0.3-4.9 1.1 0.2-5.0
Level of education 949 p = 0.047 p = 0.36 p = 0.38 468 p = 0.11 p = 0.86 p = 0.81
No formal schooling 403 44.4 1 - 1 - 1 - 222 8.0 1 - 1 - 1 -
Primary school 324 55.7 1.6 1.1-2.3 1.1 0.6-1.9 1.0 0.6-1.8 143 16.7 2.3 1.1-4.9 1.3 0.5-3.4 1.4 0.5-4.0
Secondary/university 223 52.0 1.4 0.9-2.0 1.5 0.8-2.8 1.5 0.8-2.7 103 12.1 1.6 0.7-3.8 1.3 0.3-5.2 1.3 0.3-5.7
Professional activity 7 676 p = 0.014      342 p = 0.15     
Not working/retired 275 39.3 0.5 0.3-0.8 - - - - 162 15.9 1.8 0.7-4.4 - - - -
Employee/Worker 237 55.3 1 - - - - - 106 9.7 1 - - - - -
Intermediate level 99 55.5 1.0 0.6-1.6 - - - - 45 3.4 0.3 0.1-1.8 - - - -
Upper level 65 46.0 0.7 0.4-1.3 - - - - 29 9.7 1.0 0.2-4.7 - - - -
  1. 1- Model 0: unadjusted association.
  2. 2- Model 1: associations adjusted for demographic (age) and socio-economic factors (economic level of the household proxy, education of head of household and subject).
  3. 3- Model 2: associations adjusted for demographic and socio-economic factors (same as model 1), familial history of diabetes and environmental factors (milieu and region).
  4. 4- Weighted % of T2D.
  5. 5- Odds-ratio of category to reference category.
  6. 6- Confidence interval (P = 0.95).
  7. 7- Professional activity not included in multivariate models due to high rate of missing data.