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Table 3 Association of environmental and socio-demographic variables with type 2 diabetes, by gender (n = 6908)

From: Prevalence of diabetes in Northern African countries: the case of Tunisia

  Men (n = 3013) Women (n = 3895)
   Crude associations Adjusted associations Adjusted associations    Crude associations Adjusted associations Adjusted associations
(Model 0)1 (Model 1)2 (Model 2)3 (Model 0)1 (Model 1)2 (Model 2)3
  n %4 OR5 C.I.6 OR5 C.I.6 OR5 C.I.6 n %4 OR5 C.I.6 OR5 C.I.6 OR5 C.I.6
Environment         
Area 3013 p < 0.001 p = 0.030 p = 0.11 3895 p < 0.001 p = 0.0067 p = 0.076
  Urban 1737 18.7 1.9 1.4-2.6 1.5 1.1-2.2 1.3 0.9-1.9 2187 16.5 1.9 1.5-2.5 1.7 1.2-2.4 1.4 1.0-1.9
  Rural 1276 10.6 1 - 1 - 1 - 1708 9.3 1 - 1 - & 6
Region 3013 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 3895 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p = 0.0026
  Tunis 356 18.4 3.0 1.9-4.6 2.3 1.4-3.7 2.0 1.2-3.3 496 17.3 2.0 1.3-3.1 1.8 1.2-2.9 1.7 1.1-2.5
  North East 460 12.2 1.8 1.2-2.8 1.6 1.0-2.5 1.5 1.0-2.3 460 10.4 1.1 0.7-1.7 1.1 0.7-1.7 1.0 0.6-1.5
  North West 459 7.1 1 - 1 - 1 - 588 9.6 1 - 1 - 1 -
  Centre East 461 24.5 4.2 2.8-6.4 3.9 2.6-6.0 3.5 2.3-5.3 520 18.3 2.1 1.4-3.2 2.0 1.3-3.1 1.8 1.2-2.7
  Centre West 495 12.8 1.9 1.1-3.2 2.1 1.2-3.4 2.1 1.3-3.4 613 7.1 0.7 0.5-1.2 0.8 0.5-1.3 0.8 0.5-1.3
  South East 392 14.6 2.2 1.4-3.6 2.1 1.3-3.4 1.9 1.1-3.0 604 17.2 2.0 1.3-3.0 1.9 1.2-2.9 1.6 1.1-2.5
  South West 390 11.9 1.8 1.1-2.8 1.7 1.1-2.6 1.6 1.0-2.5 614 13.9 1.5 0.9-2.6 1.5 0.9-2.5 1.4 0.8-2.3
Familial factors                 
Family history T2D 3013 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 3895 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
  Yes 667 26.3 2.5 2.0-3.1 2.5 1.9-3.1 2.4 1.8-3.0 964 22.3 2.3 1.9-2.9 2.7 2.1-3.4 2.6 2.1-3.3
  No 2346 12.5 1 - 1 - 1 - 2931 11.0 1 - 1 - 1 -
Demographic factors                 
Age (year) 3013 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 3895 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
  35-39 540 9.2 1 - 1 - 1 - 709 5.1 1 - 1 - 1 -
  40-44 661 11.9 1.3 0.8-2.2 1.3 0.8-2.2 1.3 0.8-2.2 758 8.9 1.8 1.1-3.1 1.7 1.0-2.9 1.6 0.9-2.8
  45-49 560 17.1 2.0 1.3-3.3 2.1 1.3-3.3 2.2 1.4-3.5 724 12.0 2.5 1.6-4.1 2.3 1.4-3.8 2.2 1.4-3.7
  50-54 405 19.2 2.3 1.4-3.9 2.5 1.5-4.1 2.6 1.6-4.4 592 18.4 4.2 2.8-6.4 4.0 2.6-6.1 3.9 2.5-6.0
  55-59 287 20.7 2.6 1.5-4.4 2.8 1.6-4.8 2.8 1.6-4.9 415 23.0 5.6 3.4-9.1 5.1 3.0-8.9 5.3 3.1-9.1
  60-64 232 24.2 3.1 1.7-5.7 3.8 2.0-7.2 4.2 2.2-8.1 300 22.3 5.4 3.2-8.9 5.0 2.9-8.9 5.1 2.9-9.0
  65-70 328 22.0 2.8 1.6-4.7 3.6 2.1-6.3 3.8 2.1-6.7 397 26.4 6.7 4.0-11.1 6.6 3.9-11.4 6.6 3.8-11.4
Parity          3895 p < 0.001 p = 0.41 p = 0.30
  0-3 -   - - - - - - 1213 11.0 1 - 1 - 1 -
  4-5 -   - - - - - - 1197 13.3 1.2 0.9-1.6 0.9 0.7-1.3 1.1 0.8-1.4
  6+ -   - - - - - - 1485 18.3 1.8 1.4-2.4 1.1 0.8-1.6 1.3 0.9-1.8
Socio-economic factors                 
Economic level of the household proxy 3013 p < 0.001 p = 0.0024 p = 0.32 3895 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p = 0.23
1st quintile 679 10.5 1 - 1 - 1 - 976 8.5 1 - 1 - 1 -
2nd quintile 654 12.3 1.2 0.8-1.8 1.2 0.8-1.8 1.0 0.7-1.6 957 13.1 1.6 1.2-2.3 1.7 1.2-2.4 1.3 0.9-1.8
3rd quintile 602 16.1 1.6 1.1-2.5 1.6 1.0-2.6 1.4 0.9-2.3 812 17.2 2.2 1.6-3.2 2.3 1.6-3.3 1.5 1.0-2.3
4th quintile 598 17.5 1.8 1.2-2.8 2.0 1.2-3.0 1.4 0.9-2.3 646 16.2 2.1 1.5-2.9 2.2 1.5-3.2 1.3 0.9-2.1
5th quintile 480 22.2 2.4 1.6-3.7 2.5 1.5-4.1 1.7 1.0-3.0 504 15.5 2.0 1.3-3.0 3.2 1.8-5.6 1.9 1.0-3.5
Level of education of head of household 3013 p = 0.20 p = 0.73 p = 0.74 3895 p < 0.001 p = 0.094 p = 0.073
No formal schooling 839 14.7 1 - 1 - 1 - 1708 17.0 1 - 1 - 1 -
Primary school 1258 14.6 1.0 0.6-1.4 1.0 0.6-1.6 0.9 0.5-1.5 1414 12.8 0.7 0.6-0.9 0.8 0.6-1.1 0.8 0.6-1.0
Secondary 678 17.7 1.3 0.9-1.8 0.8 0.5-1.5 0.8 0.4-1.6 586 13.9 0.8 0.6-1.1 0.8 0.5-1.3 0.8 0.5-1.3
University 238 20.4 1.5 0.9-2.4 1.7 0.3-9.2 1.6 0.3-10.0 187 5.9 0.3 0.2-0.6 0.4 0.2-0.8 0.4 0.2-0.8
Level of education 3013 p = 0.15 p = 0.32 p = 0.59 3895 p = 0.013 p = 0.019 p = 0.086
No formal schooling 745 14.7 1 - 1 - 1 - 2253 14.9 1 - 1 - 1 -
Primary school 1214 14.2 1.0 0.7-1.3 1.3 0.7-2.3 1.1 0.6-2.0 1146 15.3 1.0 0.8-1.3 1.6 1.1-2.2 1.3 0.9-1.9
Secondary 802 18.0 1.3 0.9-1.8 1.6 0.8-3.0 1.2 0.6-2.5 411 11.2 0.7 0.5-1.1 1.1 0.7-1.8 0.9 0.5-1.5
University 252 19.4 1.4 0.9-2.3 0.7 0.1-4.1 0.5 0.1-3.5 85 4.2 0.2 0.1-0.7 0.6 0.2-2.4 0.5 0.1-1.9
Professional activity 7 2597 p = 0.0022      2573 p = 0.45     
Not working/retired 87 17.2 1.3 0.6-2.8 - - - - 2044 13.5 1.2 0.8-1.9 - - - -
Employee/Worker 1662 13.8 1 - - - - - 313 11.4 1 - - - - -
Intermediate level 428 22.5 1.8 1.3-2.5 - - - - 150 12.8 1.1 0.6-2.3 - - - -
Upper level 420 14.3 1.0 0.7-1.6 - - - - 66 7.2 0.6 0.2-1.8 - - - -
  1. 1- Model 0: unadjusted association.
  2. 2- Model 1: associations adjusted for demographic (age, parity if women) and socio-economic factors (economic level of the household proxy, education of head of household and subject).
  3. 3- Model 2: associations adjusted for demographic and socio-economic factors (same as model 1), familial history of T2D and environmental factors (milieu and region).
  4. 4- Weighted % of T2D.
  5. 5- Odds-ratio of category to reference category.
  6. 6- Confidence interval (P = 0.95).
  7. 7- Professionnal activity not included in multivariate models due to high rate of missing data.