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Table 1 Shared and non-shared interventions and strategies

From: Open drug scenes: responses of five European cities

  Amsterdam Zurich Frankfurt Vienna Lisbon
Shared political and social consensus + + + + +
City coordinating system + + + + +
System for shared information + + + + +
Low threshold OPIOID MAINTENANCE TREATMENT + + + + +
Needle dispensing + + + + +
Health rooms/user rooms + + + - -
Heroin assisted treatment (HAT) + + (+) -* -
Housing projects + + - + +
Shelters + + + + +
Contact centre and café + + + + -
Outreach social work services + + + + +
Compulsory treatment + (+) - - -
Reconstruction projects + - - + +
Shared policing and social services patrolling + + - + -
Zones of tolerance - - - + -
Detention centre - + - - -
Police dispersing tactics (compulsory) + + + + +
Social behaviour orders + + + - **
Treatment within criminal justice + + - - -
Decriminalization of personal use (−) (−) - - +
Expulsion/discouragement of non-residents (+) + + + -
  1. *Vienna offers maintenance treatment with slow release morphine.
  2. **Commission for Dissuasion of Drug Addiction (CDT).