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Table 2 Association between mortality from all dementias and potential determinants: results of regression analysis

From: The rise of mortality from mental and neurological diseases in Europe, 1979–2009: observational study

   Univariate     Bivariate   
   Beta Beta Beta Beta Beta Beta Beta
   S.E. S.E. S.E. S.E. S.E. S.E. S.E.
Men Self-expression values 54.77     50.34 48.73 54.57
   14.59****     18.53** 28.72 20.15**
  Average income   4.35    0.04   
    1.95**    2.36   
  Health care expenditure    27.55    5.43  
     12.20**    13.60  
  Life expectancy, men     13.84    2.01
      4.38***    8.15
Women Self-expression values 65.19     64.31 52.15 65.16
   14.54****     18.24*** 23.89** 19.97***
  Average income   5.10    0.00   
    2.03**    2.33   
  Health care expenditure    27.74    1.07  
     12.66***    12.98  
  Life expectancy, women     27.34    7.84
      7.45***    11.33
  1. Notes: The table shows the regression coefficient (Beta) as well as its standard error (S.E.). In a forward selection procedure, age-standardized mortality from All dementias (aged 65 and over) was regressed on four possible determinants separately (“univariate”), and on self-expression vs. survival values and each of the other possible determinants separately (“bivariate”). Average income: Beta multiplied by 1000 (thus indicating effect of GDP, in 1000I$ per capita, on mortality). *p < .10 **p < .05 ***p < .01 ****p < .01.