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Table 4 Summary details of the multi-level study included in the review

From: A systematic review of the effectiveness of individual, community and societal level interventions at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in obesity amongst children


Design & quality appraisal 1

Setting & participants

Study aim

Intervention 2

Inequality 3

Summary results 4 ↑ = increase ↓ = decrease ↔ = no change


Impact on inequalities in obesity 5

Sanigorski et al 2008 [55]

Quasi-experimental including cluster RCT; 3 year follow-up; Final sample = 1807; Quality = Strong

Community (environmental and policy), Australia; 4-12 years; ≈ 50% girls

Reduce prevalence of childhood obesity

Nutrition and physical activity intervention; Prevention: Community capacity-building programme. Intervention included all manner of things. Targeted a variety of diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviours

Universal: No association between intervention effect and SES; SES associated with weight gain in control group

Waist circumference




BMI z-score

  1. 1Global Quality appraisal from EPHPP (16); 2Prevention or treatment intervention; 3Targeted/Universal approach to inequality; 4p < 0.05.This is the relative mean differences between intervention and control at follow-up; 5+ positive intervention effect so it reduces obesity-related outcomes in low SES groups or reduces the SES gradient in obesity-related outcomes, 0 no intervention effect or no effect on SES gradient in obesity-related outcomes; SES = Socioeconomic status; BMI = Body mass index.