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Table 6 Absolute change in mean values of weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores of boys and girls aged 6–9 years from COSI Round 1 (2007/2008) to COSI Round 2 (2009/2010), by age and country

From: WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: body mass index and level of overweight among 6–9-year-old children from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010

Age group and country W/A Z-score H/A Z-score* BMI/A Z-score#
  Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
6-year-olds§ NS NS NS P < 0.01 P < 0.05 P < 0.01
 BEL - 0.02° - 0.01 + 0.01 0 - 0.04°°°° - 0.02°
 SVN - 0.06 - 0.05 + 0.05 + 0.10°° - 0.14°° - 0.13°°°
7-year-olds§ NS NS NS NS P < 0.001 P < 0.05
 BEL + 0.02 - 0.02 + 0.03 - 0.01 0 - 0.03
 CZE + 0.06 + 0.09 - 0.02 0 + 0.09 + 0.14°
 IRL - 0.03 - 0.04 + 0.01 + 0.03 - 0.05 - 0.07
 LVA + 0.02 0 + 0.03 - 0.05 - 0.01 + 0.02
 LTU + 0.02 - 0.01 + 0.07° 0 - 0.05 - 0.02
 PRT - 0.09 + 0.02 + 0.10° + 0.05 - 0.21°°° - 0.01
 SVN - 0.09°° - 0.07° 0 + 0.01 - 0.14°°° - 0.10°°
8-year-olds§ P = 0.0001 NS NS NS P < 0.0001 P < 0.05
 BEL - 0.01 0 0 + 0.01 - 0.02 - 0.01
 ITA - 0.11°°° - 0.02 + 0.02 + 0.05° - 0.16°°°° - 0.05°
 NOR + 0.10° + 0.08 - 0.03 0 + 0.14°° + 0.11°°
 SVN + 0.01 - 0.01 - 0.01 - 0.04 + 0.01 0
9-year-olds§ P < 0.05 NS NS NS P < 0.01 NS
 BEL 0 - 0.01 0 + 0.03° - 0.01 - 0.03
 ITA - 0.09° - 0.06 + 0.02 + 0.03 - 0.13°°° - 0.09°
  1. Abbreviations: ANOVA analysis of variance, BMI body mass index, COSI Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative, BMI/A BMI-for-age, H/A height-for-age, NS not significantl, W/A weight-for-age.
  2. The country codes refer to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3166–1 Alpha-3 country codes and countries were listed in alphabetical order by their full names: BEL, Belgium (Flanders); CZE, Czech Republic; IRL, Ireland; ITA, Italy; LVA, Latvia; LTU, Lithuania; NOR, Norway; PRT, Portugal (all regions except Madeira); SVN, Slovenia.
  3. Body weight was adjusted for clothes worn when measured and children with a W/A Z-score < −6 or > +5 were excluded.
  4. *Children with a H/A Z-score < −6 or > +6 were excluded.
  5. #Body weight was adjusted for clothes worn when measured and children with a BMI/A Z-score < −5 or > +5 were excluded.
  6. §Significance level of the two-way ANOVA to assess the interaction effect of country and round on the change in mean values for the indicated age-sex group.
  7. °Statistically significant difference of mean values between the two rounds for the indicated age-sex group (unpaired t-test (equal variance) or unpaired Welch’s t-test (unequal variance); P < 0.05).
  8. °°Statistically significant difference of mean values between the two rounds for the indicated age-sex group (unpaired t-test (equal variance) or unpaired Welch’s t-test (unequal variance); P < 0.01).
  9. °°°Statistically significant difference of mean values between the two rounds for the indicated age-sex group (unpaired t-test (equal variance) or unpaired Welch’s t-test (unequal variance); P ≤ 0.001).
  10. °°°°Statistically significant difference of mean values between the two rounds for the indicated age-sex group (unpaired t-test (equal variance) or unpaired Welch’s t-test (unequal variance); P < 0.0001).