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Table 3 BMI and BMI-for-age Z-scores * of boys and girls aged 6–9 years in COSI Round 2 (2009/2010), by age and country

From: WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: body mass index and level of overweight among 6–9-year-old children from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010

Age group and country BMI#(kg/m2) BMI/A Z-score
  Boys Girls Boys Girls
  Mean (SD)
6-year-olds
 BEL 15.8 (1.7)a 15.8 (1.9)a 0.16 (1.08)a 0.16 (1.02)a
 SVN 16.0 (2.2)a 15.9 (2.2)a 0.21 (1.34)a 0.15 (1.16)a
 ESP 16.8 (2.2)b 16.8 (2.4)b 0.78 (1.25)§b 0.66 (1.15)b
7-year-olds
 BEL 16.3 (2.2)a 16.4 (2.5)a 0.27 (1.23)a 0.29 (1.14)a
 CZE 16.3 (2.3)ab 16.2 (2.4)a 0.31 (1.29)ab 0.23 (1.16)ab
 GRC 17.7 (2.7)c 17.7 (2.8)b 1.06 (1.31)§c 0.90 (1.15)c
 HUN 16.4 (2.5)abde 16.5 (2.7)ac 0.30 (1.37)ab 0.33 (1.23)abd
 IRL 16.5 (2.0)def 16.6 (2.1)cd 0.46 (1.05)bd 0.50 (1.00)de
 LVA 16.5 (2.3)§abeg 16.2 (2.4)a 0.34 (1.25)§ab 0.18 (1.12)b
 LTU 16.4 (2.4)§abe 16.2 (2.5)a 0.31 (1.27)§ab 0.17 (1.15)b
 PRT 16.8 (2.5)§f 17.1 (2.7)de 0.56 (1.28)d 0.64 (1.15)ef
 SVN 16.6 (2.6)§beg 16.4 (2.6)a 0.40 (1.38)§bd 0.25 (1.22)ab
 ESP 17.5 (2.7)c 17.4 (2.7)be 0.94 (1.31)§c 0.76 (1.18)cf
 MKD 16.9 (2.9)§fg 16.5 (2.9)a 0.55 (1.54)§d 0.29 (1.33)ab
8-year-olds
 BEL 16.5 (2.3)§a 16.7 (2.5)a 0.21 (1.17)a 0.22 (1.09)a
 ITA 18.1 (3.1)§b 18.0 (3.2)b 0.89 (1.37)§b 0.70 (1.23)b
 NOR 16.9 (2.5)c 16.9 (2.3)c 0.43 (1.23)c 0.39 (1.01)c
 SVN 17.5 (3.0)§d 17.3 (3.0)c 0.64 (1.37)§d 0.46 (1.22)c
 ESP 18.0 (2.7)b 18.0 (2.9)b 0.92 (1.23)§b 0.77 (1.11)b
9-year-olds
 BEL 17.3 (2.9)a 17.4 (3.0)a 0.31 (1.28)§a 0.26 (1.19)a
 GRC 19.5 (3.5)§b 19.2 (3.6)b 1.26 (1.26)§b 0.93 (1.23)b
 IRL 17.6 (2.5)c 17.5 (2.8)ac 0.58 (1.09)§c 0.41 (1.09)ac
 ITA 18.3 (3.3)§d 18.0 (3.2)c 0.83 (1.38)§d 0.57 (1.22)d
 LTU 17.5 (2.9)§c 17.1 (2.8)d 0.37 (1.23)§a 0.09 (1.16)e
 SVN 17.8 (3.1)c 17.9 (3.4)c 0.64 (1.32)§c 0.51 (1.25)cd
 ESP 18.8 (3.1)e 18.6 (3.2)e 1.00 (1.21)§e 0.76 (1.13)f
  1. Abbreviations: ANOVA analysis of variance, BMI body mass index, BMI/A BMI-for-age, COSI Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative, SD standard deviation, WHO World Health Organization.
  2. *Based on the 2007 WHO growth reference for school-age children and adolescents [17].
  3. Body weight was adjusted for clothes worn when measured and children with a BMI/A Z-score < −5 or > +5 were excluded.
  4. The country codes refer to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 3166–1 Alpha-3 country codes and countries were listed in alphabetical order by their full names: BEL, Belgium (Flanders); CZE, Czech Republic; GRC, Greece; HUN, Hungary; IRL, Ireland; ITA, Italy; LVA, Latvia; LTU, Lithuania; NOR, Norway; PRT, Portugal (all regions except Madeira); SVN, Slovenia; ESP, Spain; MKD, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
  5. #Non-normally distributed and underwent 1/square transformation prior to ANOVA and Games-Howell post hoc tests.
  6. †Statistically significant difference of mean value across countries for the indicated age group (one-way ANOVA; P < 0.0001).
  7. §Statistically significant difference of mean value between boys and girls for the indicated country (one-way ANOVA; P < 0.05).
  8. a,b,c,d,eWithin each sex-age group (e.g. 9-year-old boys), mean values that share the same letter superscript do not statistically significantly differ from each other (Games-Howell post hoc test). For example, for the 9-year-old boys, the mean BMI/A Z-scores of Greek, Italian and Spanish boys significantly differ from the other six, whereas the values of Belgian and Lithuanian boys do not differ significantly from each other as well as the values of Irish and Slovenian boys.