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Table 3 Odds ratio for offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) associated with any parental CMP

From: Parental chronic pain in relation to chronic pain in their adult offspring: family-linkage within the HUNT Study, Norway

  No CMP Any Maternal CMP Any Paternal CMP Any CMP in both parents
Daughters     
  Cases/non-cases 535/884 780/801 575/715 1 054/883
  Age-adjusted ORa (95% CI) 1.0 1.6 (1.4 to 1.8) 1.3 (1.1 to 1.5) 1.9 (1.7 to 2.3)
  Multivariably-adjusted ORb (95% CI) 1.0 1.4 (1.2 to 1.6) 1.2 (1.0 to 1.4) 1.6 (1.4 to 1.9)
Sons     
  Cases/non-cases 367/785 501/744 369/585 665/838
  Age-adjusted ORa (95% CI) 1.0 1.5 (1.2 to 1.7) 1.4 (1.1 to 1.6) 1.7 (1.4 to 2.0)
  Multivariably-adjusted ORb (95% CI) 1.0 1.4 (1.2 to 1.7) 1.3 (1.1 to 1.6) 1.6 (1.4 to 1.9)
  1. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.
  2. aAdjusted for parental age (continuous) in HUNT2.
  3. bAdjusted for parental factors in HUNT2; age (continuous), body mass index ([kg/m2] continuous), leisure time physical activity (inactive, low, moderate, high, unknown), psychological well-being (satisfied, somewhat satisfied, dissatisfied, unknown), and education (<10 years, 10–12 years, ≥13 years, unknown).