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Table 2 Odds ratios for offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) associated with any maternal or paternal CMP

From: Parental chronic pain in relation to chronic pain in their adult offspring: family-linkage within the HUNT Study, Norway

  Any maternal CMP Any paternal CMP P-value
  No Yes No Yes Differencec
Daughters      
All parents      
  Cases/non-cases 1 110/1 599 1 834/1 684 1 315/1 685 1 629/1 598  
  Age-adjusted ORa (95% CI) 1.0 1.6 (1.4 to 1.7) 1.0 1.3 (1.1 to 1.4) 0.003
  Multivariably-adjusted ORb (95% CI) 1.0 1.4 (1.2 to 1.5) 1.0 1.2 (1.1 to 1.3) 0.080
Both parents ≤65 years      
  Cases/non-cases 631/1 193 995/1 151 699/1 206 927/1 138  
  Age-adjusted ORa (95% CI) 1.0 1.6 (1.4 to 1.8) 1.0 1.3 (1.2 to 1.5) 0.044
  Multivariably-adjusted ORb (95% CI) 1.0 1.4 (1.2 to 1.6) 1.0 1.2 (1.1 to 1.4) 0.138
Both parents >65 years      
  Cases/non-cases 349/272 547/320 398/315 598/277  
  Age-adjusted ORa (95% CI) 1.0 1.3 (1.1 to 1.6) 1.0 1.4 (1.2 to 1.7) 0.629
  Multivariably-adjusted ORb (95% CI) 1.0 1.3 (1.0 to 1.6) 1.0 1.4 (1.1 to 1.7) 0.612
Sons      
All parents      
  Cases/non-cases 736/1 370 1 166/1 582 868/1 529 1 034/1 423  
  Age-adjusted ORa (95% CI) 1.0 1.3 (1.2 to 1.5) 1.0 1.2 (1.1 to 1.4) 0.355
  Multivariably-adjusted ORb (95% CI) 1.0 1.3 (1.1 to 1.5) 1.0 1.2 (1.1 to 1.4) 0.542
Both parents ≤65 years      
  Cases/non-cases 367/852 576/956 402/938 541/870  
  Age-adjusted ORa (95% CI) 1.0 1.3 (1.1 to 1.6) 1.0 1.4 (1.2 to 1.6) 0.792
  Multivariably-adjusted ORb (95% CI) 1.0 1.3 (1.1 to 1.5) 1.0 1.3 (1.1 to 1.6) 0.756
Both parents >65 years      
  Cases/non-cases 261/364 401/402 321/415 341/351  
  Age-adjusted ORa (95% CI) 1.0 1.3 (1.1 to 1.6) 1.0 1.2 (0.9 to 1.5) 0.510
  Multivariably-adjusted ORb (95% CI) 1.0 1.4 (1.1 to 1.7) 1.0 1.3 (1.0 to 1.6) 0.587
  1. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.
  2. aAdjusted for parental age (continuous) in HUNT2, and mutually adjusted for maternal and paternal CMP.
  3. bAdjusted for factors in a and parental factors in HUNT2; body mass index ([kg/m2] continuous), leisure time physical activity (inactive, low, moderate, high, unknown), psychological well-being (satisfied, somewhat satisfied, dissatisfied, unknown), and education (<10 years, 10–12 years, ≥13 years, unknown).
  4. cP-value for the estimated difference between mother-offspring and father-offspring associations.