Skip to main content

Table 2 Themes identified using the PEN-3 cultural model

From: Socio-cultural factors influencing the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Nigeria: a synthesis of the literature

  Themes from the literature reviewed Positive Existential Negative
Perceptions Knowledge of HIV transmission X   
  Acceptance of VCT X   
  Willingness to go for VCT X   
  Desire to have children   X  
  Desire to breastfeed   X  
  Poor condom use knowledge    X
  Poor awareness of ARV’s    X
  Poor awareness of PMTCT    X
  Stigma and discrimination    X
  HIV = death, abandonment, rejection    X
Enablers Confidentiality of HIV test results X   
  PMTCT Health education programs X   
  Family planning services, HAART X   
  Support group and counseling X   
  Support group and antiretroviral therapy X   
  Traditional Birth Attendant   X  
  Inadequate VCT and PMTCT centers    
  Long distance, long waiting times    X
  Financial difficulties and cost    X
  Stigma    X
  Discrimination from health workers    X
  Lack of confidentiality of results    X
  Refusal of HIV testing    X
Nurturers Disclosure of status and support X   
  Male support and involvement X   
  Family support and infant feeding choice X   
  Family support and ARV adherence X   
  Ensure lineage continuity and posterity   X  
  Non-disclosure of seropositive status    X
  Desire not to procreate    X
  Stigma    X
  Family pressure to breastfeed    X