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Table 3 The factors from all studies coded on the two-level classifications of ICF

From: Factors influencing work participation of adults with developmental dyslexia: a systematic review

2ndlevel ICF Factors Qualitative studies Quantitative studies
Functions & structures    
b1 Mental functions    
b114 Orientation functions   36 -, 37 -  
b126 Temperament and personality functions Adaptability 34 +, 39 +  
Optimistic   55
Perseverance/persistence 28 +, 29 +, 31 +, 35 + 36 +, 42+ 46 +, 57+
Personal characteristics   47
Uncertain/insecure 28 -, 29 -  
b140 Attention functions   30 -, 34 -, 36 -  
b144 Memory functions   31 -, 34 +, 36 - 37 -, 43- 56-
Remembering instructions 42  
Remembering names 42  
b152 Emotional functions Amount of passion 39  
Anxiety 28 -, 37 -, 40 -  
Aggressive feelings 28  
Concern for patient safety   56
Confusion/anger 29 -, 30 -, 32 -, 37 -, 42-  
Depression 37  
Discouragement 32  
Emotional problems 28  
Fear of being stigmatized 40 -, 42-, 43-  
Fear of exposure 37 -, 43-  
Fear of failure 28 - 56-
Feelings of accomplishment 43- 49 +
Feeling of being different 28 -, 37 -, 43-  
Feeling of inadequacy 34 -, 42-  
Feeling of presenting a false impression (impostor phenomenon) 37  
Frustration 28 -, 30 -, 32 - 37 -  
Guilt/embarrassment 34 -, 37 - 55-, 56-
Inferiority feelings 28 -, 31 -, 37 - 56-
Sense of strength 29 +, 31 +, 35 +  
Shame 34 -, 37 - , 43-  
b156 Perception   29 +, 37 +  
b160 Thought functions   29 +, 34 +, 35 -, 36 + 56+
b164 Higher-level cognitive functions Executive functions 35  
Holistic/visual thinking 31 +, 35 +  
Increased creativity 29 +, 36 +, 37 +  
Information processing   49 -, 57-
Organization and planning 29 -, 31 +, 36 +, 37 -, 39 - 49 +, 56-, 57-
Thinking outside the box 29  
b167 Mental functions of language Word retrieval 37  
b180 Experience of self and time functions Bothered by being different 36  
Depersonalize LD 36  
Disability self-awareness 30 +, 35 +, 36 +  
Labeling LD as a kind of self-mockery 39  
Negative self-perceptions 30 -, 34 -, 37 -  
Not seeing themselves as having a disability 30 +, 40 +  
Self-conscious 40  
Activities (d1- d6) and participation (d7- d9)
d1 Learning and applying knowledge
d115 Listening   36  
d155 Acquiring skills Analytical skills 36 + 57-
Developing coping strategies 40  
Developing different learning styles 42  
Learning a new skill 42°, 44+  
Learning operating instrument names 42  
Practical skills 31 +, 35 +  
d160 Focusing attention   31 +, 37 +  
d166 Reading   28 -, 29 -, 30 -, 31 -, 35 -, 36 -, 37 -, 40 -, 42-, 43- 45°, 54°, 55-, 56-, 57-, 60-
d170 Writing (spelling)   28 -, 29 -, 30 -, 31 -, 34 -, 35 -, 36 -, 39 -, 40 -, 42-, 43- 49 -, 54-, 55-, 56-, 57-, 60-
Writing reports to work 33 -, 41-, 42-  
d172 Calculating   36 +, 42-, 43- 56-, 60-
d175 Solving problems   31 +, 34 +, 36 +, 37 + 57+
d2 General tasks and demands
d210 Undertaking a single task   37  
d220 Undertaking multiple tasks Correcting mistakes   52
Gathering information 36° 56-
Giving lectures/presentations/training sessions 31 +, 35 -, 42-  
Meetings 42- 56-
Representing a group 42  
d230 Carrying out daily routine   28 ±, 36 ±, 37 ±, 40 ±, 42-, 43±  
d240 Handling stress and other responsibilities   36  
Handling responsibilities 28  
d3 Communication    
d310 Communicating with – receiving – spoken messages   30 -, 36 ±  
d315 Communicating with – receiving nonverbal messages Receiving body gestures 35  
d325 Communicating with – receiving – written messages   30 -, 36 -, 37 - 49 -, 57-
d330 Speaking   28 -, 31 +, 35 +, 36 ± 56-
Speaking in public   56
d335 Producing nonverbalmessages Using drawings 31 +, 35 +  
d345 Writing messages Completing a literacy exercise 40  
Filling in application forms 30 -, 40 -, 42- 60-
Keeping records 42+ 56-
Note taking 30 -, 36 +, 42-  
Taking telephone messages 42  
d355 Discussion Discussing (LD with employer/problems with colleagues) 30 -, 31 +, 34°, 35 +  
d 360 Using communication devices and techniques Dialing a phone 36  
Multitasking (on a computer) 36  
Using computer software/skills 28 +, 35 +, 36 +, 40 + 57-
d6 Domestic life    
d660 Assisting others Helping students 31 +, 32 +, 35 +  
  Motivate students 31 +, 32 +, 35 +  
  Validate students feelings 31 +, 32 +, 35 +  
d7 Interpersonal interactions and relationships
d710 Basic interpersonal interactions   32  
Using social skills 31 +, 35 + 46 +
d720 Complex interpersonal interactions Forming relationships 28 -, 36 -  
d740 Formal relationships Relationships with clients 41  
d8 Major life areas
d845 Acquiring, keeping and terminating a job Ability to maintain the career 29 -, 40 - 56-
Demotion or dismissal 37 -, 40 -, 43- 56-
Meeting their goals 32 +, 42+  
Occupation choice 42- 46°, 53-, 56-, 58-, 59-
Securing his current position 29 -, 34 +, 40 - 46 -, 49°, 57-
Seeking employment 40  
Skills for performing the job 43  
Survive within the workplace 40  
Terminating a job 34 -, 43-  
Working much harder 28 -, 31 -, 35 -, 36 -  
d850 Remunerative employment Achievement/accomplishment 28 -, 29 ±, 31 - 42±, 43-  
Continuous changing of employment 40  
Employment roles 40  
Employment in unskilled/semiskilled occupations 28 -, 40 - 50 -, 60+
Employment in white-collar/blue-collar jobs   45°, 52 +, 53+, 55+
Enabled to excel 36  
Having a job/being employed 28 + 47 +, 51 +, 55+
Having more jobs   47
Job history 28  
Job at the level of their training or higher 28 +, 36 +  
Job performance 33 +, 34 +, 43-  
Limited employment opportunities 43- 47 -, 55-
Part-time employment 28 +, 29 + 55-
Permanently employed   55+, 60-
Quality of products and processes 41  
Unemployed 28 -, 40 - 48 -, 52 -, 59-
Workforce abilities   47
Work-related environmental factors: terms of employment
  Access to degree courses 42- 56+
Attendance 33  
Change in job description/title 34  
Current (annual) salary   46°, 49 + °, 51 -, 52 -, 59°
Extra study leave 42  
Extra time 34 + 56+, 57+
Flexible schedule 33 +, 41+  
Incentives and bonuses 34  
Income derived from employment   59
On-the-job training agreement 31 +, 33 +  
Promotion/Job advancement 30 +, 33 +, 34 +, 42+ 51 -
Tenure used as productivity signal 30 + 47 +
Tenure with current employer 30 + 47 +
Wage -gap (with non-LD)   47 -, 51°, 52 +
Wage increase/decrease 33 +, 34 + 47 +
Working from home 41  
Working at off hours late in the day or night 36 +, 41+, 42- 46 +, 49 +, 50 + 56+, 57+
Work-related environmental factors: social relationships at work
e3 Support and relationships
e315/e320 Extended family/friends Support from family/friends 28 +, 29 +, 32 +, 33 +, 34 +, 35 +, 39 + 55+
e325 Acquaintances, peers, colleagues, neighbors and community members Being loners/isolated in the job 37  
Control/check by others 28 +, 31 +, 35 +, 36 +, 37 +, 42+ 56+
Encouragement   56
Help from colleagues/co-worker assistance 28 +, 30 -, 31 + 34 +, 35 +, 37 +, 41+, 42+ 46 +, 49 +, 56+
Joint goal planning 44  
Joint working 35 +, 44+  
Peer pressure 36  
Performance feedback 37  
Secretary dependent 36  
Social relationships with co-workers (trust) 31 +, 35 +, 37 - 56+, 57±
Support in the workplace 29 +, 30 -, 34 +, 35 + , 42+ 56+
Workforce morale 42  
e330 People in position of authority Employer assistance-support 30 -, 34 +, 38 +, 42- 47 +, 49 +, 56+, 57+
Role of employer-supervisor 30 +, 31 +, 37 + 51 -, 57°
Support of rehabilitation staff 33  
e4 Attitudes    
e425 Individual attitudes of acquaintances, peers, colleagues, neighbors and community members Appreciation of/consideration to mental disabilities 41  
Attitudinal barriers 41-, 42-  
Awareness/detection of the disability 34 -, 36°, 40 -, 41+, 42-  
Discrimination 40 -, 41-, 43- 47 -
Interest in, acceptance / understanding of dyslexia 28 -, 34 -, 41-, 42-, 43- 56-, 57-
Labeling people with LD as lazy, slow, dumb or stupid 22 -, 39 -, 41-, 42-  
LD makes me important 34  
LD as a tool to address misconceptions about LD 32 + 57+
Reactions of co-workers 28°, 31 - 32 +, 34 ±, 35 -, 36 -, 39°, 40 -, 41-, 42-, 43- 56±
Stigmatization by colleagues 40 - , 42-, 43-  
e430 Individual attitudes of people in position of authority Acceptance of dyslexia by employer 34 +, 36 +, 43+ 56-
Detection/awareness of the disability 34 -, 36 -, 40 -, 41-, 42- 47°
Employer attitudes and knowledge 30 +, 38 -, 42-  
High expectations of people with LD 32 +, 43-  
Judgment of work on disability 28  
Negative responses from employer 31 -, 34 -, 40 -  
Stigmatization by employer 40  
Work-related environmental factors: task content
  Benefits of current position 33  
Challenging students to achieve their potential 31 +, 35 +  
Control over their work 31 +, 36 +,  
Demands involving reading or writing   53-, 55-, 58-
Demands of the job 33 -, 37 - 46 +
Finding a niche 29 +, 36 +  
Increase of independence 36  
Job level 28  
More responsibility 31 +, 30 +, 33 +, 34 +  
Much information in a constant stream   56
Multitasking is required   56
Prioritizing tasks   46 +, 49 +, 57+
Productivity demands 33  
Self-regulation   46 +, 49 +
Taking work home 41+, 42-  
Working under pressure 42  
Workload, pressure, more stress 29 -, 34 -, 41-, 42-, 43+ 56-
To work by myself 30 +, 37 +  
Work-related environmental factors: working conditions
e125 Products and technology for communication Assistive technology (like a dictaphone, internet, navigation software, watch, microcassette) 32 +, 34 +, 35 +, 36 +, 40 +, 42+, 43+ 46 +, 57+
Clear signs 42  
Computer spelling and grammar programs 28 +, 35 +, 36 +, 42+ 56+
Simple words and pictures 42  
Technology interferes with work/Experiment with technology 36  
Visual aids 31  
Voice-mail 36  
e135 Products and technology for employment Accommodations on the job 29 -, 30 -, 32 +, 34 +, 36 +, 38 -, 40 - , 42+, 43-, 44 46 +, 49 -, 57+°
e1650 Financial assets Budget for an assistant 28 +, 34 +  
Money 40 -, 41-  
Other working conditions Accessibility of the office environment 41  
Changing/improving the work environment 42  
Finding a quiet/personal work environment 35 + 46 +
Hearing the words spoken aloud 36  
A mentor 33 +, 34 +  
Time 31 -, 34 +, 35 -, 37 -, 41-, 42-  
Using proofreaders 35 +, 36 +, 43+ 46 +, 57+
Other work-related environmental factors
  Centrality of LD in his career 39  
Critical knowledge and experiences on LD of employers 38  
Disabling barriers 40  
Information about (the impact of) dyslexia for employers 30 -, 38 -  
Job shadows 33  
Job visits 33  
School-to-work program 33  
Training sessions regarding disability 41  
Vocational rehabilitation 33  
Work-related injury risk   50
Other environmental factors
e550 Legal services, systems and policies Certifying disability 41  
Disability Discrimination Act 41  
Diversity agenda 41  
Equality issues 41  
Knowledge of the ADA 30  
Legislation on adults with LD 34 +, 41+  
e570 Social security services, systems and policies Income from government benefits/resources   59
Personal factors    
--- General personal data: Age   45°, 46°, 49°, 52°, 60°
Socio-demographic factors
Gender   45 +, 46°, 47 - 48 -, 49°, 50 +, 52°. 54°, 60°
Language   54
Socio-economic status 39 +, 40 - 48 +
Standard/level of education 41° 45°, 48 +, 59+, 60+
--- General ‘mental’ personal factors Aggravation 30  
Common sense   56
Confidence 42+ 56+
Creative 31 +, 37 + 56+
Demoralized 40  
Desire to help others 31 +, 37 +  
Detail oriented 36  
Diligent   56
Empathic 31 + 56+, 57+
Humorous 35 + 56+
Innovative 31 +, 37 +  
Learning/Coping strategies: 28 +, 29 +, 31 +, 37 +, 40 +, 41+, 42+ 46 +, 47 +, 49 +, 56+
  Adjusted to the disability 43  
Ask caller to speak slowly 42  
Authoritative language 39  
Avoid my weaknesses 36  
Avoidance 28 -, 35 -, 36 +  
Aware of limitations 35  
Be aware of problem words 42  
Bluffing 39  
Camouflage 28 -, 40 -  
Compensatory skills 36 +, 39 +, 43+ 47 +
Develop own shorthand 42  
Disclosing weaknesses 31  
Distancing himself from others 29 -, 39 -  
Establish themselves as intelligent 40  
Excessive amount of energy in work 28  
Exposing own difficulties 31  
Get writings/forms checked 35 +, 42+  
Give colour coded feedback 35  
Hiding the LD 35 -, 37 -, 40 -  
Leave and come back later, when losing concentration 42  
Make careful mental and concrete preparations 35  
Make lists or leave notes for myself   56
Make people write things down what they have said 35 +, 36 +  
Mnemonics 35  
Other practical solutions 28  
Overcompensation 28  
Paper and pencil in pocket 42  
Pattern of overachieving 29  
Physical activities to recall ideas 35  
Read back messages to caller 42  
Read novels to experience different types of writing 42  
Repeat names many times 42  
Repression 28  
Tricks 28  
Using prompts to recall topics 35  
Use set phrases 42  
Visualization techniques 35  
Write things out in rough 42  
Literacy level 40 - 54+, 59+, 60+
Openness 28 ±, 30 -, 31 +, 42-, 43-  
Patience 36  
Personal problems 28  
Pride 29  
Satisfaction with life 28  
Secretive 43  
Sensitive to emotional experiences of others 29 +, 31 +, 36 +, 37 +  
Self-advocacy 30 ±, 38 +, 44+  
Self-control 28  
Self-disclosure 30 -, 32 +, 34 +,35 +, 37°, 38 -, 39°, 40 -, 43 46 -, 49 0-, 56+, 57
Self-efficacy 35 + 46 +, 49 +
Self-empowerment 39  
Self-esteem 29 +, 31 +, 32 +, 35 +, 36 +, 39 +, 42+ 48 +
Self-promotion 30  
Self-reliant 36  
Self-sufficient 36  
Social person 36  
Stress avoidance 28  
Stress-experience/being stressed 28 -, 29 -, 34 -, 35 -, 36 -, 37 -, 42-  
Stubborn   57
Tolerant   56
Visual 31 +, 35 +  
--- Health related personal factors Accepting the LD/dyslexia 28  
Experiences with LD/dyslexia 29 -, 37 -  
Impact of the LD/dyslexia 28 -, 36 -, 37°, 40°, 41-, 42-, 43- 46 -, 49 0-, 55-, 56-. 57-
Locus of control   48
Management of the LD/dyslexia 40  
--- Work related personal factors Collaborative/co-operative 31  
Commitment 33  
Compliance 38  
Determination 31 +, 35 +, 36 +, 42+ 56+
Focus 33  
Force of will 39  
Goal driven 33  
Independence 29 +, 32 +, 36 + 49 +
Job/career satisfaction 28 0+, 36 +, 43+ 46 +, 49 +, 51 -
Prestige aspirations 31 + 48 +
Proactive 31 +  
Productivity/worker characteristics   47
Successful 29 +, 31 +, 32 +, 36 +, 41+  
Tenacity 34  
Underchallenged 29  
Work ethic 29  
  1. The studies which are in bold are the studies that meet the minimum level of the quality criteria. (In each category the findings are in alphabetical order).