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Table 3 Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of worse health than a year ago by socioeconomic characteristics

From: Levels and distribution of self-rated health in the Kazakh population: results from the Kazakhstan household health survey 2012

Characteristic   Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Education Primary or less 1.0 1.0 1.0
Vocational 0.73 (0.60-0.88) 0.73 (0.60-0.88) 0.75 (0.62-0.91)
Secondary 0.52 (0.43-0.63) 0.53 (0.44-0.65) 0.54 (0.45-0.66)
University 0.52 (0.42-0.63) 0.55 (0.45-0.68) 0.54 (0.44-0.68)
Income quartile Q1 (lowest) 1.0 1.0 1.0
Q2 0.84 (0.70-1.00) 0.88 (0.74-1.06) 0.87 (0.72-1.04)
Q3 0.82 (0.68-0.99) 0.90 (0.74-1.08) 0.93 (0.77-1.13)
Q4 (highest) 0.59 (0.47-0.73) 0.66 (0.53-0.83) 0.71 (0.56-0.90)
Missing 0.85 (0.68-1.05) 0.90 (0.72-1.11) 0.92 (0.73-1.14)
Married Married 1.0 1.0 1.0
Unmarried 1.42 (1.24-1.62) 1.31 (1.14-1.50) 1.22 (1.06-1.41)
Ethnicity Kazakh 1.0 1.0 1.0
Russia 0.93 (0.81-1.08) 0.96 (0.83-1.11) 0.89 (0.77-1.04)
Other 0.97 (0.78-1.19) 0.92 (0.74-1.14) 0.90 (0.73-1.12)
Urban Urban 1.0 1.0 1.0
Rural 1.08 (0.95-1.24) 1.21 (1.05-1.39) 1.13 (0.98-1.31)
Car ownership No 1.0 1.0 1.0
Yes 0.66 (0.57-0.75) 0.69 (0.60-.80) 0.68 (0.58-0.80)
Second house No 1.0 1.0 1.0
Yes 0.96 (0.71-1.31) 1.11 (0.81-1.51) 1.19 (0.87-1.63)
Computer No 1.0 1.0 1.0
Yes 0.96 (0.83-1.10) 1.09 (0.93-1.26) 1.20 (1.02-1.40)
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex and region; Model 2: additionally adjusted for income and education; Model 3: adjusted for all variables in the table.