Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 1 Adjusted clinical stages of breast cancer in DRC

From: From the set-up of a screening program of breast cancer patients to the identification of the first BRCA mutation in the DR Congo

Clinical stage Description
Stage 0 Absence of mass in the breast, but presence of a suspicious malignant lymph node
Stage I A mass with a diameter less than 2 cm, without lymph nodes (documented on mammography or ultrasound)
Stage II a mass with a diameter between 2 cm and 5 cm without lymph nodes (documented on mammography or ultrasound)
Stage III A mass of more than 5 cm with the presentation of enlarged malignant lymph node clinically (documented on ultrasound)
Stage IV The cancer shows an ulcerated mass with multiple lymph nodes that were pathologically enlarged and distant metastases*
  1. *These patients received no additional biopsies but were immediately referred to the medical oncologist.