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Table 5 Association of single HEI component scores with postpartum weight retention and gestational weight gain (GWG)

From: Adherence of pregnant women to Nordic dietary guidelines in relation to postpartum weight retention: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

Score component Higher score reflects Postpartum weight retention1 Postpartum weight retention1, + adjustment for GWG GWG as intermediate outcome2
β3 SE pvalue β3 SE pvalue β3 SE pvalue
HEI-NFG           
Fresh fruits Higher intake 0.0003 0.009 0.969 0.003 0.008 0.718 -0.007 0.011 0.486
Vegetables Higher intake 0.004 0.011 0.711 -0.001 0.009 0.913 0.010 0.013 0.418
Whole-grain Higher intake -0.006 0.006 0.340 -0.001 0.005 0.796 -0.011 0.008 0.147
Fish Higher adherence to recommendations4 -0.067 0.020 0.001 -0.051 0.017 0.003 -0.039 0.024 0.109
Fatty fish Higher adherence to recommendations4 -0.002 0.018 0.913 0.019 0.015 0.209 -0.049 0.022 0.024
Red meat Lower intake -0.029 0.018 0.104 -0.013 0.015 0.402 -0.039 0.022 0.074
Sodium Lower intake -0.025 0.030 0.409 0.044 0.026 0.091 -0.160 0.037 < 0.0001
Added sugar Lower intake 0.022 0.016 0.172 -0.018 0.014 0.207 0.091 0.020 < 0.0001
HEI-NNR           
Total fat Higher adherence to recommendations4 -0.015 0.110 0.890 -0.196 0.094 0.038 0.410 0.134 0.002
SFA + TFA Lower intake -0.111 0.053 0.034 0.019 0.045 0.670 -0.303 0.064 < 0.0001
MUFA Higher adherence to recommendations4 0.056 0.069 0.417 0.138 0.059 0.020 -0.197 0.084 0.019
PUFA Higher adherence to recommendations4 0.017 0.063 0.788 -0.066 0.053 0.218 0.201 0.076 0.008
Fibre Higher intake -0.009 0.025 0.708 -0.037 0.021 0.083 0.058 0.030 0.053
Added sugar Lower intake 0.020 0.015 0.170 -0.025 0.013 0.044 0.104 0.018 < 0.0001
Total protein Higher adherence to recommendations4 -0.112 0.202 0.578 -0.045 0.172 0.794 -0.168 0.244 0.491
  1. Abbreviations: HEI Healthy Eating Index, MUFA Monounsaturated Fat, NFG Norwegian Food Guidelines, NNR Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, PUFA Polyunsaturated Fat, SE Standard Error, SFA + TFA Saturated and Trans Fat.
  2. 1 Score components were mutually adjusted within a linear regression model, that was further adjusted for maternal age, maternal education, household income, marital status, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, weight of the child at birth, breastfeeding duration up to 6 months postpartum, total energy intake, exercise during pregnancy (week 15), smoking during pregnancy, alcohol intake during pregnancy (week 22).
  3. 2Analogous model but without adjustment for breastfeeding duration.
  4. 3β-coefficient denotes change in weight retention at 6 months postpartum (in kg) per 1-point-increment of each HEI component score.
  5. 4Too low as well as too high intake results in a deduction of points.