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Table 1 Characteristics of mothers and children at birth (frequency and weighted percentage)

From: Factors associated with prolonged non-nutritive sucking habits in two cohorts of Brazilian children

Variables RP/ 1994 SL/ 1997/98 P value***
  n (790)* wtd%** n (673)* wtd%**  
Maternal age (years)    < 0.001
<20 131 16.6 199 29.3  
20-34 563 71.9 442 66.2  
≥35 94 11.5 32 4.6  
Maternal schooling (years of study)    <0.001
≥12 93 13.1 14 1.8  
9-11 170 22.8 255 37.8  
5 to 8 304 42.5 301 44.5  
≤ 4 158 21.6 103 15.9  
Family income (minimum wages)    <0.001
0-1 38 6.1 154 24.5  
2-3 151 26.2 243 38.8  
4-5 127 23.5 103 15.6  
≥6 240 44.2 128 19.9  
Maternal marital status    <0.001
Married 489 65.5 199 30.2  
Consensual union 158 20.8 314 46.2  
No companion 106 13.7 160 23.6  
Maternal smoking during pregnancy    <0.001
Non-smoker 595 80.3 645 96.2  
Smoker 160 19.7 28 3.8  
Maternal work outside the home    <0.001
No 469 62.0 533 78.9  
Yes 287 38.0 140 21.1  
Parity (number of children)    0.071
5 or more 46 5.7 36 5.2  
2 to 4 423 54.0 321 48.3  
1 313 40.3 316 46.5  
Preterm birth    <0.001
No 604 85.1 586 91.3  
Yes 186 14.9 87 8.7  
Low birth weight    <0.001
No 621 89.4 592 94.2  
Yes 169 10.6 81 5.8  
Child’s sex      0.724
Male 402 50.8 348 51.7  
Female 388 49.2 325 48.3  
  1. *numbers may not add to total because missing values from same variables were excluded.
  2. **wtd%: weighted percentage. ***Chi-square test.
  3. Ribeirão Preto (RP), 1994, São Luís (SL), 1997/1998. Significant values are in bold.