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Table 1 Study characteristics of primary studies

From: Barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries: a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis

Study Year Country Aim Location Type of setting Data collection period Data collection method Sampling strategy Analysis Overall risk of bias
Allen J, et al. [61] 2011 USA To describe parents’ knowledge, attitudes, and decision-making with regard to obtaining the HPV vaccine for their daughters Health and social service agencies, Boston Community-based February 2008 to May 2008 Focus groups Convenience Grounded theory Medium
Bair R, et al. [51] 2008 USA To describe Latina mothers’ acceptance of the human papillomavirus vaccine for their daughters and explore their knowledge base regarding HPV-related issues One urban, paediatric primary care clinic Healthcare-based November 2004 to March 2005 Interviews Convenience Thematic analysis Medium
Brabin L, et al. [53] 2007 UK To investigate parents’ views on making available HPV vaccination to adolescent minors at sexual health clinics without parental consent 26 schools, city of Manchester School-based Not described Semi-qualitative, questionnaire data Convenience Thematic analysis Low
Brown E, et al. [55] 2009 UK To explore GPs’ and practice nurses’ views of HPV vaccination, prior to implementation of the national immunisation programme, with a focus on their role and anticipated difficulties Two general practices, Hampshire and Wiltshire Healthcare-based March 2008 Interviews Convenience Constant comparison and thematic analysis Medium
Bynum S, et al. [31] 2009 USA To explore adolescent girls and young women knowledge, beliefs and attitudes regarding HPV infection and vaccination, Pap tests, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia One teen clinic, Columbia, South Carolina Healthcare-based January 2007 to April 2007 Interviews Purposive Constant comparison High
Chan Z, et al. [30] 2011 Hong Kong To explore the experience and attitudes of physicians in clinics, and to facilitate physicians’ promotion of HPV vaccination One district, Hong Kong Healthcare-based May 2010 to June 2010 Interviews Convenience Phenomenological approach Medium
Colgrove J, et al. [23] 2010 USA To identify the factors that were most influential in determining how states acted on the issue of mandates Six states Government-based August 2008 to May 2009 Interviews Purposive Thematic content analysis Medium
Constantine N, et al. [50] 2007 USA To examine likelihood of parental acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccination for young adolescent girls, together with reasons for acceptance and non acceptance Households, California Community-based March 2006 to September 2006 Semi-qualitative, questionnaire data Random-digit-dial Grounded theory High
Cooper Robbins S, et al. [43] 2010 Australia To explore experiences, knowledge, attitudes, decision-making processes, and contextual factors related to consent to vaccination and vaccination completion Three schools, city of Sydney, New South Wales School-based September 2008 to June 2009 Focus groups, interviews and observations Purposive Constant comparison and thematic analysis Low
Cooper Robbins S, et al. [64] 2010 Australia To explore experiences, knowledge, attitudes, decision-making processes, and contextual factors related to consent to vaccination and vaccination completion Three schools, city of Sydney, New South Wales School-based September 2008 to June 2009 Focus groups, interviews and observations Purposive Constant comparison and thematic analysis Low
Dempsey M, et al. [49] 2009 USA To compare the reasons why mothers do or do not have their adolescent daughters vaccinated against HPV Outpatient family medicine or paediatrics clinics, University of Michigan’s healthcare system Healthcare-based January 2007 to March 2007 Interviews Purposive Content and thematic analysis Medium
Do H, et al. [36] 2009 USA To address HPV vaccine knowledge and beliefs among Cambodians living in Seattle, Washington Seattle, Washington Community-based 2008 Focus groups and interviews Convenience Thematic analysis High
D’Souza C, et al. [37] 2011 Australia To examine the development and delivery of a message targeting voluntary behaviour change Northern Metropolitan local government region of Melbourne Community-based Not described Focus groups Not described Health belief model High
Friedman A, et al. [62] 2007 USA To collect data on the general public’s knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding HPV and a hypothetical HPV vaccine and to explore their communication preferences Six geographically dispersed sites. Community-based 2003 Focus groups Randomly selected Thematic analysis High
Gordon D, et al. [44] 2011 UK To explore attitudes to human papillomavirus vaccination and reasons for accepting or declining the vaccine in the British Jewish community Two Jewish schools, North London School-based June 2010 to September 2010 Interviews Purposive Framework analysis Low
Gottvall M, et al. [39] 2011 Sweden To investigate school nurses’ perceptions of HPV immunisation, and their task of administering the vaccine in a planned school-based program in Sweden Five strategically chosen municipalities, Sweden School-based April 2010 to June 2010 Focus groups Convenience Content analysis Medium
Hilton S, et al. [58] 2011 UK To offer insights into adolescent girls’ understanding of HPV, its link with cervical cancer, and experiences of vaccination Two regions in Scotland (Strathclyde and Lothian) and one region in England (London) Community-based December 2009 to May 2010 Focus groups Convenience Framework analysis Low
Hilton S, et al. [42] 2011 UK To offer insights from school nurses’ perspectives and experiences of delivering this new vaccination programme National Healthcare-based September 2008 to May 2009 Interviews Convenience and snowballing Constant comparison Low
Hughes C, et al. [41] 2011 USA To generate hypotheses to inform interventions to increase vaccine receipt Multi-state, hospital-owned, primary care practice based research network Healthcare-based March 2010 and June 2010 Interviews Convenience Grounded theory approach Low
Humiston S, et al. [25] 2009 USA To assess health care providers’ attitudes and practices regarding adolescent immunizations, including factors that either impede or facilitate vaccination Monroe County, New York Healthcare-based 2005 Focus groups and interviews Not described Grounded theory Medium
Hutson S, et al. [60] 2011 USA To investigate communication and cultural issues that may influence vaccine uptake among southern Appalachian women and explore their perceptions of HPV, cervical cancer and vaccination Southern Appalachia Community-based October 2007 to August 2008 Interviews and focus groups Convenience Content analysis Medium
Javanbakht M, et al. [28] 2012 USA To explore healthcare providers perspectives on factors influencing HPV vaccination among adolescent girls in a community with high cervical cancer rates Two clinics in Los Angeles Healthcare-based March 2009 to May 2009 Interviews Convenience Grounded theory approach Medium
Kahn J, et al. [40] 2007 USA To describe the range of pediatricians’ attitudes about human papillomavirus vaccines and to explore factors influencing their intention to recommend HPV vaccines Three states of the United States (Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana) Healthcare-based 2005 Interviews Purposive Framework analysis Low
Katz M, et al. [34] 2009 USA To assess HPV vaccine acceptability Ohio Appalachia counties Community-based Summer 2007 Focus groups and interviews Convenience Thematic analysis Medium
Kwan C, et al. [32] 2008 Hong Kong To explore perceptions towards cervical cancer, human papillomavirus infection and HPV vaccination and to identify factors affecting the acceptability of HPV vaccination among Chinese adolescent girls in Hong Kong Community youth centre and secondary school School and community-based Not described Focus groups Purposive Thematic analysis Low
Marlow L, et al. [45] 2009 UK To explore attitudes to HPV vaccination among black and Asian mothers living in Britain Community health fairs and community groups Community-based April 2008 to August 2008 Interviews Convenience and snowballing Framework analysis Medium
Mays R, et al. [47] 2004 USA To elicit attitudes from parents on vaccinating children against sexually transmitted infections Two paediatric clinics, Marion County, Indiana Healthcare-based January 2000 to June 2000 Interviews Purposive Content analysis Medium
Mishra A, et al. [56] 2012 Canada To illustrate the clinical, political and practical complexities of introducing an new and controversial vaccine Not described Healthcare-based September 2009 to January 2010 Interviews Convenience Thematic analysis High
Olshen E, et al. [46] 2005 USA To explore parental views on the human papillomavirus vaccine One urban, academic adolescent clinic and one suburban, private paediatric practice Healthcare-based September 2003 to March 2004 Focus groups and interviews Convenience Content analysis Medium
Oscarsson M, et al. [38] 2011 Sweden To explore youth clinic midwives role in cervical cancer prevention and their attitude to HPV vaccination Two counties, Sweden Healthcare-based September 2010 to October 2010 Interviews Convenience Content analysis Medium
Perkins R, et al. [29] 2010 USA To explore parents’ opinions of school-entry requirements for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination One urban, academic medical centre and an affiliated community health centre, Boston Healthcare-based June 2007 to February 2008 Interviews Purposive Content analysis and grounded theory Medium
Perkins R, et al. [35] 2010 USA To explore low-income minority parents’ attitudes, intentions, and actions with regard to human papillomavirus vaccination for their daughters One urban, academic medical centre and an affiliated community health centre, Boston Healthcare-based June 2007 to February 2008 Interviews Purposive Content analysis and grounded theory Low
Quinn T, et al. [27] 2012 USA To conduct a qualitative examination of free text provider comments from a national survey of U.S. Physicians National Healthcare-based 2009 Semi-qualitative, questionnaire data Not described Grounded theory Medium
Stretch R, et al. [57] 2009 UK To seek the views of school nurses on vaccinating girls who did not have parental consent Two primary care trusts, northern England Healthcare-based July 2008 Interviews Convenience Thematic analysis Low
Shafer A, et al. [63] 2011 USA To develop HPV vaccine messages for a campaign targeting racially diverse mothers of nonvaccinated 11 to 12 year olds Rural Southeastern United States Community-based Not described Focus groups Not described Constant comparison High
Sussman A, et al. [59] 2007 USA To better understand the implications for counselling about cervical cancer prevention by primary care clinicians who care for adolescents New Mexico Healthcare-based July 2004 to May 2005 Focus groups Purposive Thematic analysis Medium
Teitelman A, et al. [33] 2011 USA To identify common beliefs about HPV vaccine initiation and describe the relationship between attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention to receive HPV vaccine Family planning, prenatal, or paediatric outpatient site for predominantly low-income patients. Healthcare-based Not described Focus groups Convenience Content analysis High
Tissot A, et al. [26] 2007 USA To examine pediatricians’ views about key issues related to HPV vaccine delivery and identify their strategies for effective vaccine delivery Three states of the United States (Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana) Healthcare-based Summer 2005 Interviews Purposive Framework analysis Low
Toffolon-Weiss M, et al. [48] 2008 USA To describe Alaska Native parents’ knowledge of and attitudes towards cervical cancer, the human papillomavirus and the HPV vaccine Three Alaskan communities Community-based January 2007 to March 2007 Focus groups Convenience Not described High
Waller J, et al. [52] 2006 UK To investigate responses to information about the HPV vaccine among mothers of daughters aged 8 to 14 years Not described Community-based August and November 2005 Focus groups Convenience and snowballing Framework analysis Medium
Williams K, et al. [54] 2010 UK To explore knowledge about human papillomavirus and attitudes towards HPV vaccination among girls who were part of the ‘catch-up’ vaccination programme One further education college and one state school School-based March 2009 to May 2009 Interviews Purposive Framework analysis Medium