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Table 5 Odds ratios for the likelihood of multimorbidity (3 or more chronic conditions) by number of unhealthy lifestyle factors (ULF), adjusted for age, socioeconomic class, and education (p = 0.003 for interaction with sex in a model with men and women together)

From: Lifestyle factors and multimorbidity: a cross sectional study

  Men Women
Number of ULFs p Odds ratio 95% CI* p Odds ratio 95% CI
 0-1 - 1   - 1  
 2 0.178 2.24 0.69-7.21 0.036 1.95 1.05-3.62
 3 0.058 2.93 0.96-8.94 0.003 2.53 1.36-4.71
 4-5 0.004 5.23 1.70-16.1 0.001 3.39 1.65-6.95
Covariates       
Age 0.000 1.07 1.04-1.10 0.000 1.12 1.09-1.15
Socioeconomic class       
 Elite group -    -   
 Middle-high 0.750 0.90 0.47-1.73 0.269 1.40 0.77-2.55
 Middle-low 0.922 0.96 0.39-2.36 0.173 1.81 0.77-4.24
 Low 0.565 1.34 0.50-3.58 0.041 2.74 1.04-7.20
Education       
 Incomplete secondary school or lower -    -   
 Completed secondary school 0.691 1.13 0.61-2.10 0.410 1.31 0.69-2.49
 College 0.860 1.08 0.44-2.67 0.740 1.16 0.48-2.85
 University 0.279 0.63 0.28-1.45 0.642 0.81 0.35-1.91
  1. *CI = Confidence interval.