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Table 3 Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of the additional independent effect of each lifestyle factor over and above the others on the likelihood of multimorbidity (3 or more chronic conditions), adjusted for age, socioeconomic class, and education (p = 0.005 for interaction with sex in a model with men and women together)

From: Lifestyle factors and multimorbidity: a cross sectional study

  Men Women
Lifestyle factors p Odds ratio 95% CI p Odds ratio 95% CI
Smoking habit: Present or past smoker 0.000 3.16 1.74-5.73 0.907 0.98 0.64-1.49
Fruit and vegetable consumption: Less than five portions* daily 0.838 0.95 0.59-1.54 0.089 1.46 0.94-2.26
Physical activity: Less than 20–30 min. 4 times/week 0.257 1.38 0.79-2.42 0.290 1.29 0.81-2.06
Alcohol consumption: High-risk drinking** 0.872 0.94 0.43-2.03 0.709 0.83 0.31-2.23
Body Mass Index (BMI): Low or high BMI*** 0.020 1.96 1.11-3.46 0.000 2.57 1.65-4.00
Covariates       
Age 0.000 1.07 1.04-1.11 0.000 1.11 1.08-1.15
Socioeconomic class       
 Elite group -    -   
 Middle-high 0.751 0.90 0.46-1.76 0.331 1.35 0.74-2.46
 Middle-low 0.900 0.94 0.38-2.37 0.257 1.64 0.70-3.87
 Low 0.508 1.40 0.52-3.80 0.064 2.49 0.95-6.54
Education       
 Incomplete secondary school or lower -    -   
 Completed secondary school 0.643 1.16 0.62-2.16 0.406 1.31 0.69-2.45
 College 0.832 1.10 0.44-2.75 0.821 1.11 0.45-2.74
 University 0.210 0.58 0.25-1.36 0.647 0.82 0.35-1.93
  1. * One portion = 4 ounces or 125 ml.
  2. ** High-risk drinking: More than 10 standard drinks per week for women; More than 15 standard drinks per week for men (1 standard drink = 1 small beer or 1 glass of wine or 1 glass of spirits/liquor).
  3. *** Normal BMI: 18.5 – 24.9 Kg/m2.