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Table 3 Immunization barriers, communication preferences, and service quality, according to six groups of caregivers identifying distinct types of immunization barriers: Colombia, May 2010*

From: Understanding the main barriers to immunization in Colombia to better tailor communication strategies

Indicators (agreement with given statement) Total Group 1 (n = 1,172) Group 2 (n = 946) Group 3 (n = 866) Group 4 (n = 642) Group 5 (n = 628) Group 6 (n = 548)
   % % % % % %
Group 1: Caregivers identifying barriers associated with parents or caregivers        
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children are long lines at health centers 42.0 62.1 31.8 56.2 23.1 23.7 37.6
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children is lack of time 29.7 68.6 20.1 6.7 30.8 11.6 19.0
My child has an incomplete schedule or has never been vaccinated because I lack the time 8.4 12.3 6.5 6.4 8.5 11.4 3.8
My child has an incomplete schedule or has never been vaccinated due to my negligence (or the negligence of the parents) 12.6 17.8 9.5 9.4 14.3 11.5 11.8
I have forgotten at least one vaccination appointment 25.5 31.1 25.5 21.0 24.1 22.4 26.0
Group 2: Caregivers identifying barriers associated with vaccinators        
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children is the vaccinator’s fear of administering multiple vaccines 2.6 0.0 13.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children is because the vaccinator said the child cannot be immunized if the parent has not brought the child’s vaccination card 5.7 3.3 11.2 1.4 10.0 5.1 3.4
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children is because the vaccinator says the child has the flu and thus cannot be vaccinated 16.5 4.2 56.9 5.7 6.0 7.3 13.4
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children is because the vaccinator says the child has a fever and thus cannot be vaccinated 13.4 2.1 55.2 2.8 2.8 3.6 6.0
During my last visit to a health center, the physician reviewed my child’s vaccination card 79.9 82.4 80.4 81.1 71.1 79.6 82.7
Group 3: Caregivers identifying barriers associated with the hospital or health center        
One reason that parents cannot vaccinate their children is the refusal of health workers to open a vaccine vial without a sufficient number of children 16.2 5.4 11.5 53.2 8.6 9.1 5.5
One reason that parents cannot vaccinate their children is because there are no vaccines available when they take their children to be immunized 28.1 22.3 24.6 65.4 11.1 22.0 14.6
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children is because healthcare professionals are unfriendly 13.3 5.0 8.8 38.7 7.4 9.2 10.5
During my last to a health center, I was unable to vaccinate my child because health workers were unwilling to open a vaccine vial for my child due to the lack of a sufficient number of children 6.9 5.9 5.7 13.1 3.4 6.7 5.2
My child has an incomplete schedule or has never been vaccinated because when I took him to be immunized, no vaccines were available* 18.6 22.4 15.2 20.4 11.5 24.2 15.5
Group 4: Caregivers identifying barriers associated with the health care system        
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children is the lack of a vaccination card 14.6 6.4 7.5 3.2 65.5 9.5 8.4
One reason that parents cannot or do not vaccinate their children is the lack of association with the healthcare system (unaffiliated status) 13.8 3.1 7.1 4.4 66.1 7.4 8.8
One reason that parents cannot or do not vaccinate their children is because the vaccination center is far away 33.4 44.1 15.9 32.9 49.7 26.2 30.4
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children is that they have to pay for the vaccines 14.4 7.3 12.3 19.4 24.9 11.0 17.2
During my last attempt to vaccinate my child, I had to travel far to a health center 19.5 26.1 19.1 14.6 18.0 17.7 17.2
Not everyone has access to vaccination services✚ 7.7 6.3 7.2 7.6 9.8 7.3 9.4
Group 5: Caregivers identifying barriers associated with adverse events        
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children is because the children become sick following vaccination 22.5 28.9 10.5 7.8 21.9 53.5 17.9
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children is because the husband does not like the children to become sick following vaccination 9.1 3.7 6.6 5.0 6.1 35.0 5.5
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children is because they fear giving the child multiple vaccines at once 9.7 1.4 6.4 2.4 3.0 47.8 8.9
My child has an incomplete vaccination schedule or has never been vaccinated because she became sick the last time she was vaccinated 6.2 4.1 7.3 7.5 7.4 5.2 6.5
Group 6: Caregivers identifying barriers associated with religious and cultural beliefs        
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children is because the family does not agree with vaccination 5.8 1.4 7.5 1.9 7.5 8.9 12.8
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children is because people living in rural areas do not need vaccines 5.6 1.2 2.5 1.1 0.7 2.2 37.2
One reason that parents do not vaccinate their children is because they have religious and/or cultural beliefs that impede vaccination 5.9 1.4 2.3 0.5 3.2 2.5 37.4
My parents were never vaccinated and they never became sick✚ 19.0 19.4 17.9 18.1 19.9 18.6 20.4
People in rural areas do not vaccines✚ 13.4 11.4 12.6 12.8 18.3 13.1 14.1
Communication indicators        
Television is the one of the best ways to raise awareness about vaccination 51.1 58.0 49.3 46.9 48.9 50.7 49.2
Talks/workshops in hospitals are one of the best ways to raise awareness about vaccination 37.3 37.9 37.2 30.7 48.9 33.0 38.2
Fliers are one of the best ways to raise awareness about vaccination 25.4 27.1 25.1 23.0 21.3 32.4 23.0
The public’s knowledge of vaccination can be improved with more information and by training the community 23.8 18.8 26.5 25.6 24.1 23.8 26.9
The public’s knowledge of vaccination can be improved by holding talks/workshops in healthcare establishments 22.4 26.2 23.6 21.2 23.2 20.4 15.0
The public’s knowledge of vaccination can be improved by raising awareness of the importance of vaccines 17.8 16.8 15.7 15.1 25.1 19.6 16.8
Service indicators        
During my last visit to a health center, immunization services were “excellent” or “good” 85.5 79.7 88.3 83.7 89.5 90.1 86.1
Healthcare workers tell me my child’s next vaccination appointment°° 91.2 87.3 92.3 91.3 93.4 92.9 93.3
Healthcare workers tell me which vaccines/boosters my child has received°° 80.1 78.6 82.9 75.0 82.9 80.3 83.3
I need an appointment to vaccinate my child✚ 40.5 32.4 32.5 43.1 57.3 41.0 47.4
All patients are treated equally in health centers✚ 73.2 71.1 79.1 70.0 73.8 72.7 72.2
Children receive the same service regardless of where they are from✚ 76.0 74.5 78.7 76.2 72.4 77.5 77.1
  1. *As described in the methodology, the final step of our factor analysis involved corrected for the oversampling of some regions using sampling weights. Percentages provided in this table reflect these adjustments. Bold values for each group represent significant deviations from rates in the overall sample presented in the second column.
  2. ✚For the purposes of this table, totals include respondents who indicated they agreed with statement given. Participants who “neither agreed nor disagreed,” “disagreed,” or chose not to respond were excluded.
  3. °°For the purposes of this table, totals include respondents who indicated that event occurred “always” or “almost always.” Respondents who indicated event occurred “sometimes”, “rarely,” or “never” were excluded.