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Table 2 Summary of epidemiologic studies of risk and protective factors for cognitive outcomes included in the review

From: Epidemiologic studies of modifiable factors associated with cognition and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Age/gender Year Country Study design Sample size Outcomes Findings
(1) Education Hypothesis: Lower education is associated with lower cognitive function or higher rate of cognitive decline or increased risk of dementia(including AD)
[21] 65+/B 1990 China Cross-sectional N = 5,055 Prevalent AD and dementia +
[22] Mean:58.5/B 1991 Nigeria Cross-sectional N = 1,350 Cognitive function +
[23] 65+/B 1992 France Cross-sectional N = 2,792 Cognitive function +
[24] 68-77/B 1992 Finland Cross-sectional N = 403 Cognitive function +
[25] 65+/B 1993 US Cohort N = 4,485 Cognitive decline +
[26] 75+/B 1994 England Cohort N = 1,195 Indicent dementia 0
[27] 65+/B 1994 US Cohort N = 10,294 Incident cognitive impairment +
[28] 55+/B 1995 US Cohort N = 3,330 Incident AD and VaD +(VaD)
[29] 18+/B 1995 US Cohort N = 14,883 Indicent dementia +
[9] 55-106/B 1995 The Netherlands Cross-sectional N = 7,528 Prevalent dementia, AD and VaD +
[30] 65+/B 1996 US Cross-sectional N = 2,212 Prevalent dementia and cognitive impairment +
[31] 68-78/B 1996 Finland Cross-sectional N = 403 Cognitive decline +
[32] 70+/B 1997 Australia Cohort N = 652 Cognitive decline +
[33] 65+/B 1997 US Cohort N = 642 Incident AD +
[34] 50-80/B 1997 Austria Cross-sectional N = 1,927 Cognitive function +
[35] Mean:75/M 1997 The Netherlands Cohort N = 528 Cognitive decline +
[36] 69-74/M 1997 Sweden Cross-sectional N = 504 Cognitive function +
[37] 55-84/B 1997 The Netherlands Cohort N = 5,825 Cognitive function, decline and incident/prevalent dementia +
[38] 65-84/B 1997 The Netherlands Cohort N = 2,063 Incident dementia +(IQ better predcitor)
[39] 47-68/B 1998 US Cross-sectional N = 14,000 Cognitive function +
[40] 60+/B 1998 Italy Cross-sectional N = 495 Prevalent dementia 0
[41] 65+/B 1998 Taiwan Cross-sectional N = 2,915 Prevalent dementia, AD and VaD +(AD)
[42] 18+/B 1999 US Cohort N = 1,488 Cognitive decline +
[43] 65+/B 1999 France Cohort N = 3,675 Incident AD +
[44] 55-106/B 1999 The Netherlands Cohort N = 6,827 Incident dementia +(women)
[45] 85+/B 2000 Sweden Cohort N = 494 Cognitive decline and function +
[46] 75+/B 2001 Sweden Cohort N = 1,296 Incident dementia and AD +
[47] 65+/B 2002 Spain Cohort N = 557 Cognitive decline +
[48] 70+/B 2002 US Cross-sectional N = 6,577 Cognitive function +
[49] 65+/B 2002 Brazil Cross-sectional N = 1,656 Prevalent dementia and AD +
[50] 65+/B 2002 Italy Cross-sectional N = 1,016 Prevalent AD and VaD +
[51] 45-59/M 2002 US Cross-sectional N = 1,839 Cognitive function +
[52] 70-79/W 2003 US Cohort N = 19,319 Cognitive function and decline +
[53] 70-79/B 2005 US Cohort N = 4,030 Cognitive decline +(ApoE-)
[54] 66+/W 2006 US Cohort N = 6,314 Cognitive function and decline +
[55] Mean age: ~75/B 2006 US Cohort N = 2,786 Incident dementia +(both whites and blacks)
[56] 55+/B 2006 China Cross-sectional N = 34,807 Prevalent AD and VaD +(AD)
[57] 50+/B 2006 China Cross-sectional N = 16,095 Prevalent dementia and AD +
[58] 65+/B 2007 Guam Cross-sectional N = 2,789 Prevalent dementia and AD +
[59] 64-81/B 2007 The Netherlands Cross-sectional N = 578 Cognitive function +
[60] 60-64/B 2009 Australia Cohort N = 416 Cognitive decline 0
[61] 30-64/B 2009 US Cross-sectional N = 1,345 Cognitive function +(literacy better predictor)
[62] 65-96/B 2009 Spain Cross-sectional N = 1,074 Prevalent dementia +
[63] 80+/B 2009 UK Cohort N = 3,336 Incident dementia +
[64] Mean:72/B 2009 US Cohort N = 6,000 Cognitive function and decline +(cognitive function) 0(cognitive decline)
[65] 60+/B 2010 Malaysa Cross-sectional N = 2,980 Prevalent dementia +
[66] 55+/B 2010 India Cross-sectional N = 2,466 Prevalent dementia and AD +
[67] 65+/B 2010 Brazil Cross-sectional N = 2,003 Cognitive function +
[68] 60+/B 2011 Brazil Cohort N = 1,461 Cognitive decline -
[69] 60-98/B 2011 Italy Cohort N = 1,270 Incident cognitive impairment +
[70] 60+/B 2011 Mexico Cohort N = 7,000 Prevalent and incident dementia +
[71] 54-95/B 2011 US Cohort N = 1,014 Cognitive decline 0
Study Age/gender Year Country Design Sample size Outcome Finding
(2) Behavioral        
(2.1.) Smoking Hypothesis: Current or ever smoking status is associated with lower cognitive function or higher rate of cognitive decline or increased risk of dementia(including AD)
[72] 65+/B 1993 US Cohort N = 1,201 Cognitive decline 0
[73] 65+/B 1994 France Cross-sectional N = 3,770 Prevalent AD, cognitive impairment 0
[74] 74+/B 1996 US Cohort N = 647 Cognitive function 0
[75] Mean:58.6/M 1997 US Cohort N = 3,429 Cognitive impairment +
[36] 69-74/M 1997 Sweden cross-sectional N = 504 Cognitive function +
[76] 75+/B 1998 Australia Cohort N = 327 Incident dementia and AD 0
[77] adults/B 1998 US Cohort N = 1,469 Cognitive function 0
[78] 55+/B 1998 US Cohort N = 6,870 Incident dementia and AD +(ApoE4)
[79] 56-69/M 1999 US Cross-sectional N = 569 Cognitive impairment +(ApoE4)
[80] 45-59/M 1999 UK Cross-sectional N = 1,870 Cognitive function 0
[81] 65+/B 2000 UK Cohort N = 889 Cognitive Impairment +
[82] Mean: 81/M 2000 UK Cohort N = 34,439 Definite or probable AD 0
[83] 45-70/B 2002 Netherlands Cohort N = 1,927 Cognitive change +
[84] 65+/B 2003 Taiwan Cohort N = 798 Cognitive decline 0
[85] 43-53/B 2003 UK Cohort N = 3,035 Cognitive decline +
[86] Mean:78/M 2003 US Cohort N = 3,734 Incident AD +
[87] 60+/B 2003 China Cross-sectional N = 3,012 Cognitive impairment +
[88] 60+/B 2004 China Cohort N = 2,820 Incident dementia and AD +
[89] 65+/B 2004 European cohorts Cohort N = 17,610 Cognitive decline +
[90] 65-84/B 2004 Italy Cohort N = 5,632 Mild cognitive impairment 0
[91] 40-80/M 2004 The Netherlands Cross-sectional N = 900 Cognitive function 0
[92] Mean:75/B 2005 US Cohort N = 791 Cognitive function and decline +(75 + and ApoE4)
[93] 40-44/B 2005 US Cohort N = 8,845 Incident dementia +
[94] 50+/B 2006 UK Cohort N = 2,000 Cognitive function +
[95] 55+/B 2007 The Netherlands Cohort N = 6,868 Incident dementia and AD +
[96] 43-70/B 2008 The Netherlands Cohort N = 1,964 Cognitive decline +
[97] 35-55/B 2008 France Cohort N = 4,659 Cognitive function +(memory)
[98] 46-70/B 2009 US Cohort N = 11,151 Incident dementia +
[99] 65+/B 2009 US Cohort N = 1,557 Cognitive decline +
[100] 90-108/B 2009 China Cross-sectional N = 681 Cognitive impairment +(men)
[63] Mean:83.5/B 2009 UK Cohort N = 3,336 Incident dementia 0
[101] 65-79/B 2010 Finland Cohort N = 1,449 Incident dementia and AD +
[102] Mean:71.8/B 2010 Taiwan Cohort N = 1,436 Incident cognitive impairment -
[103] 50y/M 2011 Sweden Cohort N = 2,268 Incident dementia and AD +(non-AD)
[104] Mean:60.1/B 2011 Finland Cohort N = 21,123 Incident dementia and AD +
[105] 44-69/B 2012 UK Cohort N = 7,236 Cognitive decline +(men)
Study Age/gender Year Country Design Sample size Outcome Finding
(2.2.) Alcohol Hypothesis: Moderate alcohol consumption is protective against poorer cognitive function, higher rate of cognitive decline and dementia
[106] 65+/B 1996 US Cross-sectional N = 2,040 Cognitive function +(J-shaped)
[107] 59-71/B 1997 France Cross-sectional N = 1,389 Cognitive function + (women)
[76] 75+/B 1998 Australia Cohort N = 327 Incident dementia and AD 0
[77] 40-80/B 1998 US Cohort N = 1469 Cognitive function 0
[108] 55-88/B 1999 USA Cohort N = 1786 Cognitive function +(U-shaped)
[109] 65+/B 2001 US Cross-sectional N = 1,836 Cognitive function +(U-shaped for men, linear for women)
[110] Mean:70/B 2001 Italy Cross-sectional N = 15,807 Cognitive impairment +(U-shaped)
[83] 45-70/B 2002 Netherlands Cohort N = 1,927 Cognitive change +(women > men) (J-shaped)
[111] 18+/B 2000 US Cohort N = 1,448 Cognitive decline +(women > men) (U-shaped)
[112] 53/B 2003 US Cross-sectional N = 10,317 Cognitive function 0
[87] 60+/B 2003 China Cohort N = 3,012 Cognitive impairment -
[113] 65-79/B 2004 Finland Cohort N = 1,464 Cognitive function +(U-shaped) - (ApoE4+)
[114] 65+/B 2004 US Cohort N = 4,417 Cognitive function +(current drinker vs. former or abstainer)
[115] 35-55/B 2004 UK Cohort N = 10,308 Cognitive function +(linear, some cognitive domains)
[116] 65+/B 2005 US cohort N = 1,624 Cognitive function +(current drinker vs. former or abstainer)
[117] Mean:74/B 2005 US Cohort N = 1,098 Cognitive function and decline +(J-shaped)
[118] 43-53/B 2005 UK Cohort N = 1,764 Cognitive decline Linear + (slower memory decline: men) -(faster psychomotor speed decline: women)
[119] 20-24,40-44,60-64/B   Australia Cross-sectional N = 7,485 Cognitive function J-shaped + (light drinkers vs. abstainers)
[120] 70-81/W 2005 US Cohort N = 11,102 Cognitive function and decline +(J-shaped) (cognitive decline)
[121] 65-89/M 2006 US Cross-sectional N = 760 Cognitive function +(linear, J-shaped)
[122] 40+/B 2006 US Cohort N = 1,428 Cognitive decline +(linear)
[123] 65-79/B 2006 Finland Cross-sectional N = 1,341 Cognitive function +(linear)
[124] 65-84/B 2007 US Cohort N = 1,445 Incident MCI and MCI→ dementia +(U-shaped)
[125] 50+/B 2010 China Cohort N = 30,499 MCI→ dementia +(J-shaped)
[126] 50+/B 2010 China Cross-sectional N = 9,571-28,537 Cognitive function +(occasional alcohol use vs. none)
[127] 65+/B 2009 China Cross-sectional N = 314 Cognitive impairment +(U-shaped)
[128] 70/B 2011 UK Cross-sectional N = 922 Cognitive function +(linear, verbal memory)
[129] 55+/B 2011 US Cohort N = 1,337 Cognitive function 0 -(executive function)
[130] 55+/B 2011 France Cross-sectional N = 4,073 Cognitive function -(high alcohol use, Low SES)
[131] 45+/B 2012 US Cohort N = 571 Cognitive decline +(heavy drinking)
Study Age/gender Year Country Design Sample size Outcome Finding
(2.3.) Physical activity Hypothesis: Physical activity is protective against poorer cognitive function, higher rate of cognitive decline and dementia(including AD)
[132] 70+/B 2001 Hong Kong Cohort N = 2030 Cognitive impairment +
[133] 65+/B 2001 Canada Cohort N = 4615 Incident cognitive impairment and AD +
[134] 65-84/M 2001 Netherlands Cohort N = 347 Cognitive decline +(ApoE4+)
[135] 65+/F 2001 US Cohort N = 5,925 Cognitive decline +
[136] 75+/B 2003 US Cohort N = 469 Incident dementias (AD, VaD and others) +
[137] 71-93/M 2004 US Cohort N = 2257 Incident dementia and AD +
[138] 65+/B 2004 US Cohort N = 1146 Cognitive decline +
[139] 80+/M 2004 European countries Cohort N = 295 Cognitive decline +
[140] 70-81/W 2004 US Cohort N = 18766 Cognitive decline +
[141] 65+/M 2005 US Cohort N = 3375 Incident dementia and AD +(ApoE4-)
[142] 65-79/B 2005 Sweden Cohort N = 1449 Incident dementia and AD +
[143] 65+/B 2005 US Cohort N = 4055 Cognitive decline -
[144] 75+/B 2006 Sweden Cohort N = 776 Incident dementia +
[145] 65+/B 2006 US Cohort N = 1740 Incident dementia and AD +
[146] 65+/W 2010 US Cross-sectional N = 9344 Cognitive impairment +
[147] 60+/B 2008 Greece Cohort N = 732 Cognitive impairment +
[148] 71-92/M 2008 US Cohort N = 2263 Dementia +
[149] 70+/B 2009 Italy Cross-sectional N = 668 Cognitive decline +
[100] 90-108/B 2009 China Cross-sectional N = 681 Cognitive impairment +
[150] 65+/B 2009 US Cohort N = 1880 Incident AD +
[151] 70-79/B 2009 US Cohort N = 2509 Cognitive function and decline +
[152] Mean:51y/B 2010 Iceland Cohort N = 4945 Cognitive function and dementia +
[153] 55+/B 2010 Germany Cohort N = 3903 Incident cognitive impairment +
[154] 60+/B 2010 US Cohort N = 5903 Cognitive function +
[155] 65+/W 2010 US Cross-sectional N = 9344 Cognitive function and impairment +
[156] Mean:82/B 2012 US Cohort N = 716 AD Cognitive decline +
[157] 40-84/B 2012 US Cohort N = 405 (40–59 years) N = 342 (60–84 years) Cognitive function +
[158] 65+/B 2012 US Cohort N = 2491 Incident dementia & AD +
Study Age/gender Year Country Design Sample size Outcome Finding
(3) Nutritional        
(3.1) Caffeine(coffee or tea) Hypothesis: Caffeine consumption is protective against poorer cognitive function, higher rate of cognitive decline and dementia
[159] 18+/B 1993 UK Cross-sectional N = 9,003 Cognitive function +(caffeine)
[160] Mean: 73/B 2002 US Cross-sectional N = 1,528 Cognitive function 0(coffee)
[161] 24-81/B 2003 The Netherlands Cohort N = 1,376 Cognitive change 0(caffeine)
[162] 70+/B 2006 Japan Cross-sectional N = 1,003 Cognitive impairment +(green tea)
[163] Mean ~ 75/M 2007 Finland, the Netherlands and Italy Cohort N = 667 Cognitive decline +(coffee, J-shaped)
[164] 55+/B 2008 Singapore Cohort N = 1,438 Cognitive impairment and decline +(tea)
[165] 65-79/B 2009 Finland Cohort N = 1,409 Incident dementia and AD +(coffee), 0(tea)
[100] 90+/B 2009 China Cross-sectional N = 681 Cognitive impairment +(tea, men)
[166] 65+/B 2009 Finland Cohort N = 2,606 Cognitive function, incident dementia and MCI 0(coffee)
[167] 70-74/B 2009 Norway Cross-sectiona N = 2,031 Cognitive impairment +(tea)
[168] 17-92/B 2009 UK Cross-sectional N = 3,223 Cognitive function 0(caffeine)
[169] 70/B 2010 UK Cohort N = 923 Cognitive function +(coffee); −(tea)
[170] 55+/B 2010 Singapore Cross-sectional N = 716 Cognitive function +(tea)
[171] 65+/B 2010 France Cohort N = 641 Cognitive decline +(caffeine, women)
[172] 65+/B 2010 Portugal Cohort N = 648 Cognitive decline +(caffeine, women)
[173] 65+/B 2011 US Cohort N = 4,809 Cognitive decline +(caffeine, women)
[174] Mean:54/M 2011 US Cohort N = 3,494 Incident dementia and cognitive impairment 0(caffeine)
[175] Mean:91.4/B 2012 Singapore Cohort N = 7,139 Cognitive change +(tea)
Study Age/gender Year Country Design Sample size Outcome Finding
(3.2) Antioxidants/Vitamin E Hypothesis: Antioxidants, including vitamin E, are protective against poorer cognitive function, higher rate of cognitive decline and dementia(including AD)
[176] 55-95/B 1996 Netherlands cohort N = 5,182 Cognitive function +
[177] 66-97/B 1998 US Cohort N = 1,059 Cognitive function 0
[178] 65+/B 1998 US Cohort N = 633 Incident AD +
[179] 5075/B 1998 Austria Cross-sectional N = 1,769 Cognitive performance +(Vit. E)
[180] 71-93/M 2000 Hawaii Cohort N = 3,385 Incident AD, VaD, MD and OD +(VaD)
[181] 48-67/B 2000 US Cross-sectional N = 12,187 Cognitive performance 0
[182] 55+/B 2002 Netherlands Cohort N = 5,395 Incident AD +
[183] 65+/B 2002 US Cohort N = 815 Incident AD +(Vit. E, ApoE4)
[184] 65-102/B 2002 US Cohort N = 2,889 Cognitive decline +
[185] 65+/B 2003 US Cohort N = 2,969 Incident dementia Incident AD 0
[186] 70-79/W 2003 US Cohort N = 14,968 Cognitive function +(Vit. E)
[187] 65+/B 2003 US Cohort N = 980 Incident AD 0
[188] 45-68/M 2004 US Cohort N = 2,459 Incident dementia and AD 0
[189] 65+/B 2004 US Cohort N = 4,740 Incident and prevalent AD +
[190] 65+/B 2005 Italy Cross-sectional N = 1,033 Prevalent dementia and cognitive impairment +
[191] 55+/B 2005 Netherlands Cross-sectional N = 3,717 Prevalent AD 0
[192] 65-105/B 2005 US Cohort N = 616 Incident Dementia Incident AD 0
[193] 65+/B 2005 Canada Cohort N = 894 Cognitive decline Dementia +
[194] 65+/B 2005 US Cohort N = 3,718 Incident AD Cognitive function +
[195] Mean:73.5/B 2007 France Cross-sectional N = 589 Cognitive function +
[196] 60+/W 2007 US Cohort N = 526 Cognitive impairment +(Vit. E)
[197] 65+/B 2007 US Cohort N = 3,831 Cognitive function +
[198] 65+/B 2008 US Cohort N = 3,376 Cognitive function +
[199] 65+/B 2008 US Cohort N = 2,969 Incident Dementia Incident AD 0
[200] 65+/B 2008 Italy Cohort N = 761 Cognitive impairment +(Vit. E Sub-type)
[201] 70+/W 2010 US Cohort N = 16,010 Cognitive function & decline +(cognitive function)
[202] 70/B 2011 UK Cross-sectional N = 882 Cognitive function 0
Study Age/gender Year Country Design Sample size Outcome Finding
(3.3) Homocysteine Hypothesis: Homocysteine is a risk factor for poorer cognitive function, higher rate of cognitive decline and dementia (including AD)
[203] 55+/B 1999 Netherlands Cohort N = 702 Cognitive function and decline 0
[204] 60+/B 2002 UK Cross-sectional N = 391 Cognitive function +
[205] 55+/B 2002 The Netherlands Cross-sectional N = 1,077 Cognitive function +
[206] Mean:76/B 2002 US Cohort N = 1,092 Incident AD +
[207] 60+/B 2003 US Cross-sectional N = 1,789 Global cognitive function +
[208] Mean:73/B 2003 Italy Cross-sectional N = 650 Cognitive function +
[209] 65+/B 2004 US Cohort N = 679 Incident and prevalent AD 0
[210] Mean:72/B 2005 Turkey Cohort N = 1,249 Incident dementia, AD, MCI 0
[211] 60+/B 2005 US Cross-sectional N = 1,789 Cognitive impairment and dementia 0
[212] 40-82/B 2005 US Cross-sectional N = 2,096 Cognitive function +(60 + y)
[213] 70-79/B 2005 US Cohort N = 499 Cognitive function and decline +(cognitive function)
[214] 85+/B 2005 Netherlands Cohort N = 599 Cognitive impairment and decline +(with impairment)
[215] 65+/B 2005 Switzerland Cohort N = 623 Incident MCI, dementia, AD and VaD +
[216] 60+/B 2005 US Cross-sectional N = 1,789 Cognitive impairment and dementia +
[217] Mean:74/B 2005 Italy Cohort N = 816 Incident AD +
[218] 50-70/B 2005 US Cross-sectional N = 1,140 Cognitive function +
[219] 50-85/M 2005 US Cohort N = 321 Cognitive decline +
[220] Mean:62/B 2006 US Cross-sectional N = 812 Cognitive function +
[221] 55+/B 2006 China Cross-sectional N = 451 Cognitive function +
[222] Mean:59/B 2006 The Netherlands Cohort N = 345 Cognitive function +
[223] 65+/B 2007 UK Cohort N = 1,648 Cognitive decline +
[224] 60-101/B 2007 US Cohort N = 1,779 Incident dementia and MCI +
[225] 60-85/B 2007 South Korea Cross-sectional N = 1,215 Prevalent MCI +
[226] 26-98/B 2008 US Cross-sectional N = 911 Cognitive function +(ApoE4+)
[227] 65+/B 2008 Korea Cross-sectional N = 607 Cognitive function +
[228] Mean:72/B 2008 Korea Cohort N = 518 Incident dementia and AD +
[229] Mean:77/B 2009 US Cohort N = 516 Prevalent and incident MCI 0
[230] 38-85/B 2010 Sweden Cohort N = 488 Incident dementia 0
[231] 65+/B 2010 The Netherlands Cohort N = 1,076 Cognitive decline +
[232] Mean:78/W 2011 Germany Cross-sectional N = 420 Cognitive function +
[233] 38-60/W 2011 Sweden Cohort N = 1,368 Incident dementia and AD +
[234] 70-89/M 2012 Australia Cohort N = 4,227 Incident dementia +
[235] 70-89/M 2012 Australia Cohort N = 1,778 Incident cognitive impairment +
Study Age/gender Year Country Design Sample size Outcome Finding
(3.4) n-3 fatty acids Hypothesis: n-3 fatty acids are protective against poorer cognitive function, higher rate of cognitive decline and dementia(including AD)
[236] 69-89/M 1997 Netherlands cohort N = 476 Cognitive impairment & decline 0
[237] 55+/B 1997 Netherlands Cohort N = 5,386 Incident dementia and AD +
[238] 55+/B 2002 Netherlands Cohort N = 5,395 Incident dementia and AD 0
[239] 65-94/B 2003 US Cohort N = 815 Incident AD +
[240] 45-70/B 2004 Netherlands Cross-sectional N = 1,613 Cognitive function +
[241] 65+/B 2005 US Cohort N = 3,718 Cognitive decline 0
[242] 65+/B 2007 France Cohort N = 8,085 Incident dementia and AD +(ApoE4-)
[243] 50+/B 2007 US Cohort N = 2,251 Cognitive decline +(hypertensive, Dyslipidemic)
[244] Mean:76/B 2007 Italy Cross-sectional N = 935 Prevalent dementia +
[245] 50-70/B 2007 Netherlands Cohort N = 404-807 Cognitive function and change +(change)
[246] 50+/B 2008 US Cohort N = 2,251-7,814 Cognitive decline +(hypertensives)
[247] 65-80/B 2008 Finland Cohort N = 1,449 MCI and cognitive function +
[248] Mean:78/B 2008 France Cohort N = 1,214 Incident dementia +
[249] 65+/B 2009 Multi-national Cross-sectional N = 14,960 Prevalent dementia +
[250] 55+/B 2009 Netherlands Cohort N = 5,395 Incident dementia and AD 0
[251] 65+/B 2009 Canada Cohort N = 663 Incident dementia or AD 0
[252] Mean:68/M 2009 Netherlands Cohort N = 1,025 Cognitive function 0
[253] 76-82/W 2009 France Cohort N = 4,809 Cognitive decline +
[254] Mean:75/B 2010 Spain Cross-sectional N = 304 Cognitive impairment +
[255] 35-54/B 2010 US Cross-sectional N = 280 Cognitive function +
[256] 55+/B 2011 Singapore Cohort N = 1,475 Cognitive function and decline +(supplements)
[257] Mean:~64/B 2011 France Cohort N = 3,294 Cognitive impairment +
[258] 65+/B 2011 France Cohort N = 1,228 Cognitive decline +(ApoE4+; depressed)
  1. +Hypothesized association; − Association against hypothesis; 0: No association.
  2. Abbreviations: AD: Alzheimer’s Disease; ApoE: Apolipoprotein E; B: Both; M: Men; MCI: Mild Cognitive Impairment; MD = Mixed Dementia; OD = Other dementia; UK: United Kingdom; US: United States; VaD: Vascular Dementia; W: Women.