Skip to main content

Table 1 Diagnostic criteria of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), Vascular Dementia (VaD), Mixed dementia (MD) and other dementias

From: Epidemiologic studies of modifiable factors associated with cognition and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis

Diagnosis Criteria
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (NINCDS-ADRDA) Source[11, 12]: Development of multiple cognitive deficits, with both memory impairment and one (or more) of the following cognitive disturbances:
Aphasia (language disturbance)
Apraxia (learned motor skills disturbance)
Agnosia (visuospatial/sensory disturbance)
Executive functioning (foresight, planning, insight anticipation)
Significant impairment in social or occupational functioning, representing a significant decline from a previous level of functioning
  Other diagnostic criteria: Hachinski Ischemic Score, ICD-10; DSM-IV; ADDTC; updated NINCDS-ADRDA
Vascular Dementia (VaD) (NINDS-AIREN) Source[13]: Cognitive decline from previous higher level of function in three areas of function including memory.
Evidence of cerebrovascular disease by examination
Evidence of cerebrovascular disease by neuroimaging
Onset either abrupt or within three months of a recognized stroke.
Vascular Dementia (VaD) (Modified Hachinski Ischemia Score: ≥4) Source[14]: Two-point items
Abrupt onset
History of stroke
Focal neurologic symptoms
One-point items
Stepwise deterioration
Somatic complaints
History of hypertension
Emotional incontinence
  Other diagnostic criteria: ICD-10; DSM-IV
Mixed Dementias (MDs)  
Hachinski Ischemic score Score based on clinical features: ≤4 = AD; ≥7 = VaD; intermediate score of 5 or 6 = MD.
ICD-10 Cases that met criteria for VaD and AD
DSM-IV Cases with criteria for primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type and clinical or neuroimagery feature of VaD.
ADDTC Presence of ischemic vascular disease and a second systemic or brain disorder.
NINDS-AIREN Typical AD associated with clinical and radiological evidence of stroke.
Other Dementias  
Fronto-Parietal Dementia (FTD) Source[15]: Behavioral or cognitive deficits manifested by either (1) or (2):
(1) Early and progressive personality change, with problems in modulating behavior; inappropriate responses/activities.
(2) Early and progressive language changes, with problems in language expression, word meaning, severe dysnomia.
Deficits represent a decline from baseline and cause significant impairment in social and occupational functioning.
Course characterized by gradual onset and continuing decline in function.
Other causes (eg, stroke, delirium) are excluded
Gradual onset and progressive cognitive decline.
Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) (Consensus Guidelines for the Clinical Diagnosis for Dementia with Lewy Bodies) Source[16]: Fluctuating in cognitive performance: Marked variation in cognition or function, or episodic confusion/decreased responsiveness.
  Visual hallucinations: Usually well formed, unprovoked, benign.
  Parkinsonism: Can be identical to Parkinson’s Disease (PD), milder or symmetric.
Parkinson’s Disease with Dementia (PD-D) Source[17]: Bradyphrenia (slowness of thought)
  Executive impairment
  Neuropsychiatric symptoms
  1. Sources[17, 18]:.
  2. Abbreviations: ADDTC: Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centers; DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition; ICD-10: International Classification of Disease, 10th edition; NINCDS-ADRDA: National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke -- the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association; NINDS-AIREN: National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke--Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l’Enseignement en Neurosciences; PD-D: Parkinson’s disease with dementia.