Skip to main content

Table 6 Logistic regression model of the relationship between risk factors and catastrophic cost (cost burden ≥ 1%) for one pediatric diarrheal episode, in a sample of 551 Bolivian children seeking care for acute diarrhea, 2007 - 2009

From: The economic burden of pediatric gastroenteritis to Bolivian families: a cross-sectional study of correlates of catastrophic cost and overall cost burden

Variable   Unadjusted analysis Adjusted model 1 (n = 295) Adjusted model 2 (n = 295)*
  N OR 95% CI P OR 95% CI P OR 95% CI P
Demographics           
 Male child 550 1.49 (1.06, 2.10) 0.02 1.04 (0.59, 1.86) 0.89 1.00 (0.55, 1.81) 1.00
 Age of child (months) 524 0.98 (0.96, 1.00) 0.07 0.99 (0.96, 1.02) 0.53 1.00 (0.96, 1.03) 0.77
 Number of people in household 524 1.02 (0.95, 1.09) 0.60 1.00 (0.88, 1.13) 0.95 0.96 (0.84, 1.09) 0.51
 Rural residence 458 1.76 (1.09, 2.86) 0.02 1.54 (0.73, 3.26) 0.26 1.33 (0.62, 2.86) 0.47
 Hospital 536          
  Albina Patiño (Private)   3.39 (2.36, 4.89) <0.01 4.13 (2.30, 7.41) <0.01 5.26 (2.86, 9.68) <0.01
  All Others (Public, Reference)   1.00 - - 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
Treatment-Seeking Behavior           
 Sought treatment at least once previously to current visit 467 8.05 (3.92,16.55) <0.01 3.92 (1.64, 9.35) <0.01 4.84 (1.83,12.75) <0.01
 Number of transportations taken to current visit 428 1.18 (0.80, 1.75) 0.41 1.28 (0.70, 2.33) 0.42 1.79 (0.97, 3.30) 0.06
 Number of days child had diarrhea prior to current visit 513 1.02 (1.00, 1.05) 0.10 1.14 (1.05, 1.24) <0.01 1.09 (1.02, 1.16) 0.01
Severity of illness           
 Child was an outpatient 551 0.35 (0.25, 0.49) <0.01 0.16 (0.07, 0.37) <0.01 0.10 (0.04, 0.24) <0.01
 Child presented with at least one complication 548 2.10 (1.49, 2.96) <0.01 1.38 (0.57, 3.34) 0.47 0.42 (0.19, 0.93) 0.03
 Child’s first episode of diarrhea 466 1.1 (0.75, 1.60) 0.64 1.47 (0.79, 2.75) 0.22 1.60 (0.83, 3.06) 0.16
Interaction term           
 Number of days with diarrhea (1-unit change) × at least one complication - - - - 1.37 (0.59, 3.2) 0.03 § - - -
  1. *Second adjusted model excludes direct non-medical costs of diapers and extra food. P < 0.05. Complications were defined as at least one of the following, as diagnosed by the attending physician: electrolyte disorder, electrolyte imbalance, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, anemia, malnutrition, acute respiratory infection, bronchopneumonia, intussusception, dehydration, or any other unnamed complication. §P-value associated with the overall interaction coefficient. Italicized text indicates p < 0.05.