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Table 3 Mean costs ($US*) for treatment incurred by the caregiver for an episode of pediatric diarrhea in a sample of 551 Bolivian children seeking care for acute diarrhea, 2007 – 2009, stratified by inpatient status and hospital type

From: The economic burden of pediatric gastroenteritis to Bolivian families: a cross-sectional study of correlates of catastrophic cost and overall cost burden

Type of cost Inpatients Outpatients P** Private hospital Public hospital P**
  n Mean SEM n Mean SEM n Mean SEM n Mean SEM
Direct medical costs 297    254     203    333    
 Diagnostic   2.00 0.50   1.00 0.50 0.04   2.50 1.00   1.00 0.50 <0.01
 Medicines   5.00 1.00   6.50 0.50 <0.01   8.50 1.00   3.50 0.50 <0.01
 Consultation Fees   2.00 0.50   19.50 2.50 <0.01   26.00 3.00   1.00 0.00 <0.01
Total   8.50 1.50   27.00 2.50 <0.01   37.00 3.50   5.50 1.00 <0.01
Direct non-medical costs 297    254     203    333    
 Transportation   3.00 0.50   3.00 0.50 0.59   2.50 0.50   3.00 0.50 0.47
 Food during visit   2.00 0.00   1.00 0.00 <0.01   1.50 0.00   1.50 0.00 0.45
 Diapers   3.50 0.50   1.00 0.00 <0.01   1.00 0.00   3.00 0.50 <0.01
 Child care   0.50 0.50   0.50 0.50 0.23   1.50 0.50   0.50 0.50 0.15
 Total   9.00 0.50   5.50 0.50 <0.01   6.50 1.00   8.00 0.50 0.05
Total Direct Costs 297 36.00 2.50 254 14.50 1.50 <0.01 203 43.50 3.50 333 13.50 1.00 <0.01
Indirect Costs (lost wages) 124 18.50 1.50 243 13.00 1.50 <0.01 183 17.50 1.50 172 12.50 2.00 <0.01
Total (direct and indirect) cost per episode 254 45.50 3.00 297 25.00 2.00 <0.01 203 59.00 4.00 333 20.00 1.50 <0.01
Cost burden (Total Costs as % of annual income) 254 2.2 0.2 297 1.4 0.2 <0.01 203 2.4 0.2 333 1.4 0.2 <0.01
  1. *Mean costs and SEMs are rounded to the nearest $0.50. Total costs less than the sum of direct and indirect costs due to the missing values for indirect costs, which are treated as zero in total cost calculations. **P-value for Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance test (non-parametric). Italicized text indicates p < 0.05.