Skip to main content

Table 2 F tests of poverty, household, caregiver and child characteristics by orphans status on psychosocial outcomes

From: Children’s psychosocial wellbeing in the context of HIV/AIDS and poverty: a comparative investigation of orphaned and non-orphaned children living in South Africa

  Anxiety/depression Affability Resilience
  Orphans Non orphans Orphans Non orphans Orphans Non orphans
Poverty related indicators:       
Poverty threshold (threshold = 37.5USD per capita per month)1       
  Households below poverty threshold 37.04 (9.79) 36.66 (10.36) 35.53 (5.46) 36.31 (5.80) 23.38 (3.73) 23.64 (4.08)
  Households above poverty threshold 35.25 (9.67) 33.18 (8.91) 36.45 (4.86) 36.83 (5.81) 23.53 (3.41) 23.17 (4.11)
Monthly household income (incl grants) median = R1450       
  Monthly household income below median of R1450 36.18 (10.00) 35.91 (10.14) 35.61 (5.69) 36.61 (5.63) 23.43 (3.71) 23.75 (3.93)
  Monthly household income above median of R1450 36.77 (9.62) 35.29 (10.04) 36.11 (4.97) 36.42 (5.88) 23.36 (3.59) 23.30 (4.24)
Household composition:       
No. of inhabitants in household2       
  1 – 4 people 36.16 (9.97) 33.20 (8.99) 35.98 (5.14) 36.83 (5.62) 23.12 (3.74) 23.51 (4.38)
  5 - 7 people 34.97 (10.16) 35.12 (9.09) 36.15 (5.70) 36.61 (5.66) 24.08 (3.44) 23.70 (3.65)
  8 – 10 people 37.06 (8.99) 37.61 (11.63) 34.72 (5.63) 36.79 (5.34) 23.19 (3.76) 23.65 (3.93)
More than 10 people 38.02 (10.05) 37.73 (9.92) 36.83 (4.47) 35.52 (6.39) 23.26 (3.52) 23.13 (4.62)
3Dependency ratio4       
  1-3 children 35.02 (10.00) 34.56 (9.41) 35.70 (5.47) 36.72 (5.61) 23.24 (3.61) 23.64 (3.92)
  4-5 children 35.83 (9.22) 35.80 (10.20) 35.86 (5.06) 36.95 (5.59) 23.75 (3.22) 23.76 (3.83)
  6-7 children 36.55 (10.10) 37.40 (10.05) 36.51 (5.80) 37.30 (4.56) 23.55 (3.93) 23.78 (5.12)
  More than 8 children 38.97 (9.57) 38.19 (10.14) 35.31 (4.88) 34.73 (6.82) 22.63 (3.97) 22.78 (5.12)
Number of adults in household5       
  1-2 adults 36.35 (10.07) 35.17 (10.00) 35.69 (5.41) 36.40 (5.75) 23.41 (3.68) 23.39 (4.09)
  3-4 adults 34.97 (9.22) 35.62 (9.78) 35.89 (5.78) 37.10 (5.36) 23.89 (3.68) 23.89 (3.70)
  5 or more adults 38.78 (9.63) 37.30 (10.60) 36.08 (4.62) 35.93 (6.05) 22.94 (3.40) 23.35 (4.42)
Number of children in household6       
  1 – 2 children 36.82 (10.26) 33.96 (9.31) 36.15 (5.24) 36.47 (5.75) 23.28 (3.47) 23.71 (4.20)
  3-4 children 35.04 (9.01) 35.79 (9.78) 35.56 (5.53) 36.79 (5.53) 23.64 (3.45) 23.39 (3.67)
  5-6 children 37.58 (10.55) 36.48 (10.30) 35.96 (4.69) 36.55 (5.82) 23.32 (3.72) 23.47 (3.80)
  More than 7 children 37.17 (9.56) 38.12 (11.50) 35.83 (5.93) 35.85 (6.43) 23.48 (3.98) 23.04 (5.17)
Caregiver characteristics:       
Caregiver self-reported health7,8       
  Poor health 36.67 (9.15) 36.82 (10.61) 36.12 (5.27) 35.89 (5.92) 23.74 (3.48) 23.17 (4.27)
  Fair health 37.67 (9.14) 37.38 (10.00) 33.36 (4.38) 35.47 (5.24) 22.28 (3.02) 24.02 (3.06)
  Good health 36.15 (10.44) 34.65 (9.52) 35.48 (5.46) 37.42 (5.40) 23.11 (3.88) 23.84 (4.09)
  Excellent health 33.08 (11.73) 34.65 (9.53) 39.92 (4.81) 37.88 (5.62) 24.33 (4.21) 23.89 (3.77)
Caregiver impairment in last month9       
  No 34.58 (9.10) 34.55 (9.43) 36.00 (4.74) 37.27 (5.62) 23.28 (3.37) 23.85 (4.03)
  Yes 37.83 (9.86) 37.16 (10.53) 35.67 (5.76) 35.84 (5.69) 23.48 (3.79) 23.26 (4.02)
Communication with caregiver about problems10       
  Never 39.75 (11.16) 40.50 (9.93) 33.05 (5.92) 33.72 (6.93) 23.50 (3.09) 21.47 (4.30)
  Sometimes 36.71 (10.13) 36.38 (10.53) 35.06(5.49) 35.06 (5.98) 22.93 (4.00) 22.74 (4.32)
  Always 35.11 (8.83) 34.91 (9.71) 37.31 (4.63) 37.66 (5.10) 24.07 (3.26) 24.26 (3.70)
Caregiver is helpful when in need of help or material things11,12       
  Never 35.67 (6.25) 40.38 (10.84) 34.67 (5.29) 31.75 (7.46) 24.00 (2.74) 20.00 (6.00)
  Sometimes 37.01 (10.06) 35.68 (10.44) 35.79 (5.73) 35.36 (5.83) 23.24 (4.022) 22.62 (4.19)
  Always 35.69 (9.58) 35.67 (9.80) 36.28 (5.03) 37.14 (5.55) 23.78 (3.35) 24.05 (3.79)
Adolescent characteristics:       
Child age13       
  10 – 12 years 34.52 (8.68) 34.27 (10.73) 35.71 (5.92) 37.44 (5.99) 23.11 (4.21) 23.79 (4.40)
  13 – 15 years 35.61 (9.19) 35.46 (10.00) 36.45 (5.32) 37.23 (5.51) 23.32 (3.90) 23.62 (4.20)
  16 – 18 years 38.21 (10.66) 36.72 (9.66) 35.20 (5.10) 35.31 (5.59) 23.81 (2.97) 23.45 (3.60)
Gender       
  Males 38.08 (9.95) 36.10 (10.48) 35.84 (5.34) 36.56 (5.39) 23.27 (3.71) 23.68 (3.81)
  Females 35.57 (10.03) 35.72 (9.36) 35.54 (5.25) 36.48 (6.07) 23.52 (3.55) 23.38 (4.36)
  1. 1Significant main effect for Poverty threshold on anxiety and depression scores, F(1, 580) = 7.78, p < .05.
  2. 2Significant main effect for number of household inhabitants on Anxiety and Depression scores, F(3, 607) = 3.45, p < .05.
  3. 3Number of children the caregiver cares for in the household.
  4. 4Significant main effect for Dependency ratio on Anxiety and Depression scores, F(3,554) = 2.67, p < .05.
  5. 5Significant main effect for Number of adults in household on Anxiety and Depression scores, F(2, 609) = 3.20, p < .05.
  6. 6This is the total number of children in the household irrespective of whoever cares for them.
  7. 7Significant interaction effect between caregivers’ self-reported health and orphan status and the DV Affability, F(3, 606) = 2.69, p < .05.
  8. 8Significant main effect for caregivers’ self-reported health status on adolescents’ affability scores, F(3, 606) = 5.06, p < .01.
  9. 9Significant main effect for caregiver impairment in the past month on adolescent’s anxiety and depression scores, F(1, 604) = 12.16, p < .01.
  10. 10Significant main effect for Communication with caregiver about problems and adolescents’ anxiety and depression scores, F(2, 599) = 6.14, p < .0, affability scores, F(2, 603) = 19.99, p < .01, and resilience scores, F(2, 604) = 9.40, p < .01.
  11. 11Significant main effect for caregiver provision of help and assistance on adolescents’ affability sores, F(2, 601) = 5.21, p < .01 and resilience scores, F(2, 602) =5.39, p < .01.
  12. 12Significant interaction effect between orphan status and caregiver provision of help and assistance on adolescents’ resilience scores, F(2, 602) = 3.02, p < .05.
  13. 13Significant main effect for adolescents’ age on depression and anxiety scores, F(2, 615) = 3.76, p < .05 and affability scores, F(2, 619) = 5.16, p < .05.