Table 1 Descriptive statistics of sample and variables of interest

Orphans

Non-orphans

Total

Statistical test

Mean age (SD)

14.60 (1.94)

14.67 (2.02)

14.64 (1.99)

t (619) = 0.43, p = 0.67

Gender

Male

93 (31.2%)

203 (68.8%)

298 (51.6%)

χ 2 (1) = 0.03, p < 0.05

Female

112 (40%)

168 (60%)

280 (48.4%)

Orphan status (%)

226 (36.3)

397 (63.7)

623 (100)

Orphan type:

Maternal (%)

76 (34.9)

Paternal (%)

92 (42.2)

Double (%)

50 (22.9)

Household type:

Orphan (%)

153 (24.6)

Non orphan (%)

336 (53.9)

Mixed (%)

134 (21.5)

Poverty related indicators:

Monthly income per capita (Poverty threshold = 37.5USD per capita per month)

\$36.32 (\$57.80)

\$40.32 (\$62.59)

\$38.87 (\$60.88)

t(599) = 0.77, p = 0.44

Monthly Household income (incl grants)

R1893.44 (R1672.76)

R1969.96 (R2128.10)

R1942.13 (R1973.54)

t(600) = 0.46, p = 0.65

Household composition:

Total household inhabitants (M, SD)

7.83 (3.73)

7.37 (3.35)

7.54 (3.49)

t (620) = -1.59, p = 0.12

Number of adults in household (M, SD)

3.19 (1.82)

3.26 (1.82)

3.24 (1.18)

t (620) = 0.51, p = 0.61

Number of children in household

4.62 (2.53)

4.10 (2.20)

4.29 (2.34)

t (620) = -2.70, p <0.01

Dependency ratio (%)

Care for child plus 1 – 2 more children

59 (28.9)

131 (36.1)

190 (33.5)

χ 2 (3) = 6.70, p = 0.08

Care for child plus 3 – 4 more children

66 (32.4)

127 (35.0)

193 (34.0)

Care for child plus 5 – 6 more children

47 (23.0)

68 (18.7)

115 (20.3)

Care for child plus 7 or more children

32 (15.7)

37 (10.2)

69 (12.2)

Caregiver characteristics:

Primary caregiver

χ 2(6) = 110.25, p < 0.00

Biological mother

52 (23.4%)

251 (63.7%)

303 (49.2%)

Biological father

6 (2.7%)

22 (5.6%)

28 (4.5%)

Aunt

33 (14.9%)

20 (5.1%)

53 (8.6%)

Uncle

5 (2.3%)

2 (0.5%)

7 (1.1%)

Grandmother

105 (47.3%)

75 (19.0%)

180 (29.2%)

Grandfather

5 (2.3%)

7 (1.8%)

12 (1.9%)

Other

16 (17.2%)

17 (4.3%)

33 (5.4%)

χ 2 (2) = 3.5, p = 0.17

Never

20 (9.3)

32 (8.1)

52 (8.5)

Sometimes

83 (38.4)

125 (31.7)

208 (34.1)

Always

113 (52.3)

237 (60.2)

350 (57.4)

Caregiver impairment over the past month

χ 2 (1) = 3.67, p = 0.06

Yes

128 (57.9)

196 (49.9)

324 (52.8)

No

93 (42.1)

197 (50.1)

290 (47.2)

Caregiver self-reported health

χ 2 (3) = 4.45, p = 0.22

Poor

117 (52.7)

176 (44.7)

293 (47.6)

Fair

25 (11.3)

50 (12.7)

75 (12.2)

Good

68 (30.6)

135 (34.3)

203 (33.0)

Excellent

12 (5.4)

33 (8.4)

45 (7.3)

Caregiver provision of help and assistance

χ 2 (2) = 4.72, p = 0.09

Never

9 (4.2)

8 (2.0)

17 (2.8)

Sometimes

76 (35.3)

118 (30.0)

194 (31.9)

Always

130 (60.5)

267 (67.9)

397 (65.3)

Psychosocial outcomes:

Anxiety/Depression

36.43 (9.80)

35.80 (10.07)

36.03 (9.96)

t (614) = -0.76, p = 0.45

Affability

35.86 (5.34)

36.54 (5.69)

36.30 (5.57)

t (618) = 1.46, p = 0.15

Resilience

23.47 (3.62)

23.56 (4.03)

23.53 (3.89)

t (272) = 0.27, p = 0.79

1. Note: missing values not included.
2. This question item was phrased as, “during the past 30 days were you unable to perform your most important activity for an entire day because of problems with your physical or mental health?”.