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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of sample and variables of interest

From: Children’s psychosocial wellbeing in the context of HIV/AIDS and poverty: a comparative investigation of orphaned and non-orphaned children living in South Africa

  Orphans Non-orphans Total Statistical test
Adolescent characteristics:     
Mean age (SD) 14.60 (1.94) 14.67 (2.02) 14.64 (1.99) t (619) = 0.43, p = 0.67
Gender     
  Male 93 (31.2%) 203 (68.8%) 298 (51.6%) χ 2 (1) = 0.03, p < 0.05
  Female 112 (40%) 168 (60%) 280 (48.4%)  
Orphan status (%) 226 (36.3) 397 (63.7) 623 (100)  
Orphan type:     
  Maternal (%) 76 (34.9)    
  Paternal (%) 92 (42.2)    
  Double (%) 50 (22.9)    
Household type:     
  Orphan (%)    153 (24.6)  
  Non orphan (%)    336 (53.9)  
  Mixed (%)    134 (21.5)  
Poverty related indicators:     
Monthly income per capita (Poverty threshold = 37.5USD per capita per month) $36.32 ($57.80) $40.32 ($62.59) $38.87 ($60.88) t(599) = 0.77, p = 0.44
Monthly Household income (incl grants) R1893.44 (R1672.76) R1969.96 (R2128.10) R1942.13 (R1973.54) t(600) = 0.46, p = 0.65
Household composition:     
Total household inhabitants (M, SD) 7.83 (3.73) 7.37 (3.35) 7.54 (3.49) t (620) = -1.59, p = 0.12
Number of adults in household (M, SD) 3.19 (1.82) 3.26 (1.82) 3.24 (1.18) t (620) = 0.51, p = 0.61
Number of children in household 4.62 (2.53) 4.10 (2.20) 4.29 (2.34) t (620) = -2.70, p <0.01
Dependency ratio (%)     
  Care for child plus 1 – 2 more children 59 (28.9) 131 (36.1) 190 (33.5) χ 2 (3) = 6.70, p = 0.08
  Care for child plus 3 – 4 more children 66 (32.4) 127 (35.0) 193 (34.0)  
  Care for child plus 5 – 6 more children 47 (23.0) 68 (18.7) 115 (20.3)  
  Care for child plus 7 or more children 32 (15.7) 37 (10.2) 69 (12.2)  
Caregiver characteristics:     
Primary caregiver     χ 2(6) = 110.25, p < 0.00
  Biological mother 52 (23.4%) 251 (63.7%) 303 (49.2%)  
  Biological father 6 (2.7%) 22 (5.6%) 28 (4.5%)  
  Aunt 33 (14.9%) 20 (5.1%) 53 (8.6%)  
  Uncle 5 (2.3%) 2 (0.5%) 7 (1.1%)  
  Grandmother 105 (47.3%) 75 (19.0%) 180 (29.2%)  
  Grandfather 5 (2.3%) 7 (1.8%) 12 (1.9%)  
  Other 16 (17.2%) 17 (4.3%) 33 (5.4%)  
Communication with caregivers about problems     χ 2 (2) = 3.5, p = 0.17
  Never 20 (9.3) 32 (8.1) 52 (8.5)  
  Sometimes 83 (38.4) 125 (31.7) 208 (34.1)  
  Always 113 (52.3) 237 (60.2) 350 (57.4)  
Caregiver impairment over the past month     χ 2 (1) = 3.67, p = 0.06
  Yes 128 (57.9) 196 (49.9) 324 (52.8)  
  No 93 (42.1) 197 (50.1) 290 (47.2)  
Caregiver self-reported health     χ 2 (3) = 4.45, p = 0.22
  Poor 117 (52.7) 176 (44.7) 293 (47.6)  
  Fair 25 (11.3) 50 (12.7) 75 (12.2)  
  Good 68 (30.6) 135 (34.3) 203 (33.0)  
  Excellent 12 (5.4) 33 (8.4) 45 (7.3)  
Caregiver provision of help and assistance     χ 2 (2) = 4.72, p = 0.09
  Never 9 (4.2) 8 (2.0) 17 (2.8)  
  Sometimes 76 (35.3) 118 (30.0) 194 (31.9)  
  Always 130 (60.5) 267 (67.9) 397 (65.3)  
Psychosocial outcomes:     
  Anxiety/Depression 36.43 (9.80) 35.80 (10.07) 36.03 (9.96) t (614) = -0.76, p = 0.45
  Affability 35.86 (5.34) 36.54 (5.69) 36.30 (5.57) t (618) = 1.46, p = 0.15
  Resilience 23.47 (3.62) 23.56 (4.03) 23.53 (3.89) t (272) = 0.27, p = 0.79
  1. Note: missing values not included.
  2. This question item was phrased as, “during the past 30 days were you unable to perform your most important activity for an entire day because of problems with your physical or mental health?”.