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Table 3 Distribution of reported or observed pigmentation characteristics and 25(OH)D levels by pigmentation genetic scores

From: Skin pigmentation, sun exposure and vitamin D levels in children of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

  Mean ± SD of pigmentation score   Mean ± SD  
  Skin colour score Tanning score Freckling score Na 25(OH)D (nmol/l) Nb
Skin colour change       
Always burns never tans 6.29 ± 1.25 12.16 ± 1.97 7.16 ± 1.54 47 62.8 ± 14.6 45
Burns easily rarely tans 5.69 ± 1.27 11.76 ± 2.19 6.82 ± 1.81 547 63.4 ± 16.7 518
Doesn’t change 5.41 ± 1.18 11.19 ± 2.02 6.41 ± 1.66 235 64.9 ± 18.4 225
Tans easily rarely burns 4.89 ± 1.17 10.35 ± 2.00 5.85 ± 1.61 2209 63.2 ± 19.9 2098
Always tans never burns 4.57 ± 1.11 9.92 ± 1.95 5.56 ± 1.54 924 63.6 ± 20.1 875
p-value <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 3962 0.81/0.53c 3761
Child badly burnt       
No 5.00 ± 1.21 10.54 ± 2.08 5.96 ± 1.68 3501 62.4 ± 18.7 3465
Yes 5.40 ± 1.29 11.27 ± 2.17 6.42 ± 1.70 613 63.7 ± 19.3 594
p-value 1.5×10-13 2.2×10-15 6.4×10-10 4114 0.13/0.17c 4059
Any freckles       
No 4.70 ± 1.14 10.06 ± 1.96 5.52 ± 1.57 432 60.8 ± 19.1 391
Yes 5.45 ± 1.23 11.41 ± 2.18 6.79 ± 1.80 297 63.7 ± 19.2 270
p-value 2.0×10-16 2.1×10-17 2.3×10-22 729 0.05/0.04c 661
Mole count       
49 months       
Q1 (0–6) 4.84 ± 1.17 10.27 ± 1.90 5.80 ± 1.60 227 61.3 ± 16.6 193
Q2 (7–9) 4.94 ± 1.18 10.30 ± 2.04 5.66 ± 1.64 144 60.2 ± 15.4 123
Q3 (10–14) 5.03 ± 1.25 10.75 ± 2.22 6.08 ± 1.95 186 61.5 ± 25.2 166
Q4 (15–57) 5.37 ± 1.22 11.24 ± 2.27 6.49 ± 1.80 176 62.8 ± 16.7 169
p-value 0.0002 1.89×10-6 3.16×10-5 733 0.71/0.74c 651
61 months       
Q1 (0–10) 4.83 ± 1.22 10.07 ± 2.06 5.55 ± 1.75 191 60.4 ± 17.6 164
Q2 (11–16) 4.84 ± 1.24 10.43 ± 2.11 5.90 ± 1.67 174 60.5 ± 21.7 162
Q3 (17–25) 5.05 ± 1.17 10.68 ± 2.16 6.23 ± 1.82 180 61.4 ± 15.1 163
Q4 (26–86) 5.30 ± 1.25 11.21 ± 2.10 6.43 ± 1.73 166 65.2 ± 21.5 160
p-value 0.001 3.50×10-7 4.26×10-7 711 0.08/0.09c 649
186 months       
Q1 (0–2) 5.05 ± 1.22 10.56 ± 2.15 6.05 ± 1.76 688 60.6 ± 17.0 704
Q2 (3–9) 4.92 ± 1.20 10.50 ± 2.14 6.03 ± 1.72 691 61.4 ± 19.1 717
Q3 (10–22) 5.00 ± 1.21 10.60 ± 2.08 6.01 ± 1.67 710 62.3 ± 18.5 729
Q4 (23–153) 5.21 ± 1.18 10.83 ± 2.04 6.03 ± 1.65 665 63.5 ± 18.5 656
p-value 0.0001 0.02 0.99 2754 0.02/0.01c 2806
  1. aN = number of individuals included in the analysis of pigmentation scores.
  2. bN = number of individuals included in the analysis of 25(OH)D levels.
  3. cAdjusted for sex and age at blood draw.