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Table 2 Estimated marginal means, percentages, sample sizes, standard deviations, differences, p values and effect sizes for primary and secondary outcomes

From: A theory-based online health behaviour intervention for new university students (U@Uni): results from a randomised controlled trial

  1-month follow-up   6-month follow-up  
Variable Control Intervention     Control Intervention    
  % or Mean SD n % or Mean SD n Diff p d % or Mean SD n % or Mean SD n Diff p d
Fruit and vegetable intake                   
Mean portions 5.47 4.26 453 6.02 4.18 436 .55 .053 0.13 5.72 4.98 512 5.61 4.89 495 -.11 .708 -0.02
Physical activity                   
Mean METS 2563.39 2162.88 471 2755.63 2169.40 452 192.24 .179 0.09 3316.10 5143.79 526 3350.52 5144.16 513 34.42 .914 0.01
Mean hours sitting 400.55 150.49 388 396.19 150.44 372 -4.36 .890 0.03 408.12 158.25 450 412.24 158.30 435 4.12 .699 -0.03
Member of Sport Sheffield           56.52 - 325 54.92 - 318 -1.60 .392 -0.04
Not a member of Sport Sheffield           43.48 - 250 45.08 - 261    OR 1.11
Mean Sport Sheffield attendance           8.15 15.50 325 9.92 15.34 318 1.77 .149 0.15
Alcohol consumption                   
Mean units in last 7 days 13.86 16.89 507 12.55 17.06 491 .02 .222 0.08 13.41 19.65 547 13.01 19.75 540 -.40 .737 0.02
Mean number of days binge drinking in last 7 days (drinkers only) 1.33 .99 271 1.31 .92 234 -.02 .901 0.02 1.16 .89 319 1.16 .85 288 .00 .973 0.00
AUDIT                   
Mean consumption           6.45 2.60 400 6.32 2.52 376 -.13 .480 0.05
Mean dependency           .93 1.39 393 .88 1.34 366 -.05 .597 0.04
Mean problems           2.26 2.60 393 2.05 2.49 366 -.21 .256 0.08
Mean alcohol objective (FAEE)           2.55 4.59 43 2.80 4.61 34 .25 .816 -0.05
Smoking                   
Has smoked 42.37 - 211 40.41 - 196 -1.96 .849 0.04 47.74 - 264 46.30 - 250 -1.44 .776 0.03
Has never smoked 57.63 - 287 59.59 - 289 1.96   OR 1.04 52.26 - 289 53.70 - 290 1.44   OR 1.05
Smoked since attending University 25.96 - 129 24.33 - 118 -1.63 .578 0.05 35.51 - 196 35.93 - 194 .42 .878 -0.01
Not smoked since starting University 74.04 - 368 75.67 - 367 1.63   OR 1.09 64.49 - 356 64.07 - 346 -.42   OR 0.98
Current smoker 11.45 - 57 9.07 - 44 -2.38 .333 0.14 13.02 - 72 8.70 - 47 -4.32 .010 0.25
Not a current smoker 88.55 - 441 90.93 - 441 2.38   OR 1.36 86.98 - 481 91.30 - 493 4.32   OR 1.92
Mean cigarettes smoked per week 2.74 5.57 496 2.35 5.71 483 -.39 .286 0.07 3.24 6.81 552 2.70 6.73 538 -.54 .181 0.08
Mean smoking objective (cotinine)           .37 .33 43 .51 .35 34 .14 .081 -0.41
Mean smoking objective (nicotine)           7.24 21.44 43 12.85 21.52 34 5.61 .266 -0.26
Other outcomes                   
EQ-5D-3L                   
Mean health index scores from EQ-5D-3L(VAS) .91 .22 495 .91 .22 482 0.00 .957 0.00 .90 .12 542 .91 .23 530 .01 .452 0.05
Mean health index scores from EQ-5D-3L (TTO) .92 .22 495 .92 .22 482 0.00 .728 0.00 .92 .23 542 .92 .23 530 .00 .739 0.00
Mean EQ-5D-3L visual analogue scale 77.63 12.45 494 76.66 12.45 477 -.97 .224 -0.08 77.69 13.01 540 77.17 13.05 524 .01 .508 -0.04
Recreational drug use                   
Have taken recreational drugs (SSC measure)1 9.52 ±10.74 47 22.57 ±12.11 109 13.05 <.001 -0.57 8.27 ±11.12 38 24.36 ±12.7 105 16.09 <.001 -0.70
Have not taken recreational drugs (SSC measure) 90.48   450 77.43   373 -13.05   OR 2.04 91.73   418 75.64   324 -16.09   OR 2.39
Have taken recreational drugs (biochemical measure)           41.86 - 18 45.71 - 16 3.85 .491 -0.09
Have not taken recreational drugs (biochemical measure)           58.14   25 54.29 - 19 -3.85   OR 1.29
BMI                   
Mean BMI 21.97 2.96 448 22.22 3.15 440 .25 .230 -0.08 22.15 2.23 499 22.12 2.22 494 -.03 .870 0.01
Mean objective BMI           22.01 2.90 100 22.27 2.86 91 .01 .550 -0.09
Health service usage 2                   
Mean times visited GP in last 6 months           1.33 1.49 455 1.18 1.66 429 .01 .169 0.10
Alcohol intervention offered by GP           .39 - 1 .82 - 2 .43 .648 -0.41
Alcohol intervention not offered by GP           99.61 - 253 99.18 - 241 -.43   OR 1.68
Attended alcohol intervention           0 - 0 0 - 0 .00 -  
Did not attend alcohol intervention           100 - 1 100 - 2 .00   
Mean times visited A&E           .10 .43 452 .10 .41 426 .00 .882 0.00
Mean times admitted to A&E           .19 .52 42 .25 .51 40 .06 .622 -0.12
Mean times required an ambulance           .03 .21 429 .03 .20 404 .02 .802 0.00
Mean times admitted to hospital           .04 .21 450 .06 .21 425 .02 .253 -0.10
Mean elective admissions to hospital           .34 .69 13 .68 .67 20 .34 .181 -0.50
Mean non-elective admissions to hospital           1.02 .66 12 .44 .63 20 -.58 .020 0.90
Mean other times visited hospital (not incl. above)           .25 .85 447 .22 .82 424 -.03 .642 0.04
Academic achievement                   
Mean grade of academic year           62.49 8.99 481 62.35 9.13 473 -.14 .814 -0.02
Progressed from level one           96.54   446 95.45   435 -.09 .810 -0.01
Did not progress           3.46 - 16 3.55   16 .09   OR 1.01
Social cognition variables                   
Fruit and vegetables                   
 Mean descriptive norm 2.67 1.10 488 2.63 1.09 478 -.04 .684 -0.04 5.61 1.62 534 5.37 1.84 527 .24 .027 -0.14
 Mean injunctive norm 6.05 1.10 488 5.93 1.08 478 -.12 .116 -0.11 3.18 1.62 534 3.43 1.61 527 .25 .017 0.15
 Mean perceived control 5.63 1.33 488 5.65 1.31 478 .02 .785 0.02 5.66 1.39 534 5.85 1.38 527 .19 .018 0.14
 Mean self-efficacy 5.50 1.55 488 5.49 1.53 478 -.01 .944 -0.01 5.58 1.39 534 5.72 1.38 527 .14 .106 0.10
 Mean intention 5.39 1.10 488 5.31 1.09 478 -.08 .270 -0.07 5.52 1.16 534 5.47 1.15 527 -.05 .442 -0.04
 Mean plan 4.85 1.55 488 4.78 1.53 478 -.07 .474 -0.05 5.09 1.39 534 5.13 1.38 527 .04 .628 0.03
 Mean attitude 6.22 .88 488 6.20 .87 478 -.22 .652 -0.02 6.65 .69 534 6.59 .69 527 -.06 .208 -0.09
Physical activity                   
 Mean descriptive norm 3.75 1.33 493 3.78 1.31 480 .03 .637 0.02 5.71 1.39 539 5.65 1.38 527 -.06 .530 -0.04
 Mean injunctive norm 6.04 1.11 493 5.99 1.31 480 -.05 .550 -0.04 4.10 1.63 539 4.20 1.61 527 .10 .288 0.06
 Mean perceived control 5.80 1.11 493 5.93 1.10 480 .13 .078 0.12 5.83 1.16 539 5.96 1.15 527 .13 .069 0.11
 Mean self-efficacy 5.62 1.33 493 5.82 1.31 480 .20 .020 0.15 5.78 1.39 539 5.83 1.38 527 .05 .523 0.04
 Mean intention 5.63 1.11 493 5.64 1.10 480 .01 .921 0.01 5.67 1.16 539 5.74 1.15 527 .07 .306 0.06
 Mean plan 4.94 1.55 493 5.04 1.53 480 .08 .338 0.06 5.14 1.63 539 5.13 1.61 527 -.01 .944 -0.01
 Mean attitude 6.10 .89 493 6.18 .88 480 .08 .119 0.09 6.63 .70 539 6.62 .69 527 .01 .948 -0.01
Binge drinking                   
 Mean descriptive norm 5.70 1.11 491 5.59 1.31 479 -.11 .177 0.09 2.79 1.85 537 3.00 1.83 525 .21 .059 -0.06
 Mean injunctive norm 2.48 1.33 491 2.47 1.31 479 -.01 .974 0.01 5.10 1.62 537 4.93 1.83 525 -.17 .110 0.10
 Mean perceived control 6.24 1.11 491 6.13 1.09 479 -.11 .171 -0.01 6.27 1.16 537 6.14 1.15 525 -.13 .097 -0.10
 Mean self-efficacy 5.70 1.55 491 5.66 1.53 479 -.04 .704 -0.03 5.81 1.39 537 5.69 1.38 525 -.12 .194 -0.09
 Mean intention 3.18 1.11 491 3.16 1.31 479 -.02 .824 0.02 3.13 1.39 537 3.07 1.37 525 -.06 .457 0.04
 Mean plan 4.66 1.99 491 4.45 1.97 479 -.21 .115 -0.11 4.89 2.09 537 4.50 2.06 525 .39 .003 -0.19
 Mean attitude 2.50 .89 491 2.52 .88 479 .02 .819 -0.02 1.83 .93 537 1.91 1.15 525 .09 .207 -0.08
Smoking                   
 Mean descriptive norm 4.19 1.33 488 4.05 1.31 479 .14 .113 0.11 1.73 1.39 537 1.87 1.37 525 .14 .105 -0.10
 Mean injunctive norm 1.34 .88 488 1.35 .88 479 .01 .751 -0.01 3.63 1.62 537 3.57 1.60 525 -.06 .593 0.04
 Mean perceived control 6.61 1.10 488 6.58 1.09 479 .03 .666 -0.03 6.55 1.16 537 6.51 1.15 525 -.04 .518 -0.03
 Mean self-efficacy 5.36 1.77 488 5.28 1.75 479 -.08 .490 -0.05 5.12 1.62 537 5.37 1.83 525 .25 .172 0.14
 Mean intention 1.53 .88 488 1.51 .88 479 -.02 .671 0.02 1.61 .93 537 1.53 .92 525 -.08 .164 0.09
 Mean plan 5.58 2.21 488 5.30 2.19 479 -.28 .050 -0.13 5.57 2.32 537 5.19 2.29 525 -.38 .003 -0.16
 Mean attitude 1.45 .66 488 1.47 .66 479 .02 .573 -0.03 1.32 .70 537 1.35 .69 525 .03 .491 -0.04
  1. 1Includes confidence interval.
  2. 2These do not include imputed data as only measured at 6 months.
  3. Notes. METS = metabolic equivalent of task, AUDIT = alcohol use disorder identification test FAEE = fatty acid ethyl esters, VAS = visual analogue scale technique, TTO = time trade-off technique SSC = single sample count, OR = odds ratio, BMI = body mass index, GP = general practitioner, A&E = accident and emergency