The figure shows the newborn pathway to survival. ○-circles represent routine care during each of the four main periods from conception to infancy which is the optimal pathway to health and survival. ◊- detours from the desired pathway. These include maternal danger signs in three settings and three principal scenarios leading to neonatal morbidity and mortality: birth asphyxia, LBW, and development of danger signs, particularly those of infection. □- special care required for mothers and infants who depart from the pathway to survival, emphasizing the fundamental importance of recognition of and appropriate response to illness, including timely care seeking, in the pathway to health maintenance and survival.