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Table 5 Associations between social relationships and heavy drinking

From: Social relationships and health related behaviors among older US adults

  Prevalence ratio (95% Confidence interval)
Model A Model B Model C
Social networks/support    
Marital status (women)
Married/cohabiting 1.00 1.00 1.00
Widowed 0.97 (0.66, 1.42) 0.96 (0.69, 1.34) 1.03 (0.73, 1.45)
Divorced/separated 1.21 (0.72, 2.02) 1.15 (0.76, 1.75) 1.24 (0.81, 1.91)
Single 1.83 (0.89, 3.76) 1.58 (0.94, 2.68) 1.70 (1.01, 2.86)*
Marital status (men)
Married/cohabiting 1.00 1.00 1.00
Widowed 1.59 (1.08, 2.32)* 1.59 (1.09, 2.32)* 1.67 (1.13, 2.47)*
Divorced/separated 2.35 (1.69, 3.26)*** 2.37 (1.72, 3.27)*** 2.59 (1.89, 3.54)***
Single 1.68 (0.85, 3.32) 1.69 (0.86, 3.35) 1.85 (0.97, 3.54)
Number of close friends    
0-4 1.00 1.00 1.00
5-8 0.91 (0.71, 1.18) 0.91 (0.70, 1.17) 0.90 (0.70, 1.15)
9 or more 1.04 (0.86, 1.27) 1.04 (0.86, 1.26) 1.02 (0.85, 1.24)
Emotional support    
Lack of emotional support   1.00 1.00
Sufficient emotional support   1.03 (0.83, 1.29) 1.03 (0.83, 1.28)
Covariates    
Age (years) 0.95 (0.93, 0.97)*** 0.95 (0.93, 0.97)*** 0.96 (0.94, 0.97)***
Gender    
Female 1.00 1.00 1.00
Male 0.86 (0.70, 1.05) 0.86 (0.70, 1.05) 0.85 (0.69, 1.04)
Poverty-income ratio (cont.)    1.11 (1.03, 1.20)*
Education    
More than high school    1.00
High school diploma    1.07 (0.80, 1.43)
Less than high school    0.96 (0.75, 1.25)
Ethnicity (%)    
White Americans    1.00
African Americans    1.13 (0.90, 1.41)
Mexican Americans    1.45 (1.15, 1.84)**
Other Hispanic Americans    1.26 (0.86, 1.86)
Other    1.05 (0.59, 1.88)
  1. ***p < 0.001 **p < 0.01 *p < 0.05.