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Table 3 Relationships between socio-background characteristics and health behaviors among older people in India

From: Smoking, physical activity and healthy aging in India

  Smoking n = 1675 Physical inactivity (vigorous) n = 1675 Physical inactivity (moderate) n = 1683
Adjusted OR Adjusted OR Adjusted OR
Punjab (urban) 0.060 (0.022–0.159)*** 2.220 (1.303–3.781)** 7.738 (4.600–13.017)***
Punjab (rural) 0.042 (0.021–0.085)*** 2.081 (1.397–3.100)*** 4.533 (3.113–6.602)***
Rajasthan (urban) 0.329 (0.160–0.677)** 2.758 (1.472–5.167)** 11.167 (6.075–20.527)***
Rajasthan (rural) 0.298 (0.182–0.486)*** 1.260 (0.837–1.896) 4.479 (2.991–6.709)***
Kerala (urban) 0.972 (0.568–1.662) 1.175 (0.733–1.884) 0.647 (0.398–1.053)
Karnataka (urban) 0.370 (0.204–0.672)*** 1.966 (1.203–3.212)** 4.422 (2.825–6.921)***
Karnataka (rural) 0.564 (0.354–0.899)* 1.623 (1.086–2.427)* 3.295 (2.242–4.844)***
Tribe 0.476 (0.227–0.995)* 1.824 (1.031–3.227)* 2.220 (1.213–4.062)**
No caste or tribe 1.221 (0.541–2.757) 0.655 (0.342–1.256) 0.281 (0.140–0.566)***
Gender (female) 0.075 (0.052–0.110)*** 3.317 (2.574–4.273)*** 0.601 (0.473–0.765)***
Age 1.009 (0.996–1.024) 0.979 (0.691–1.388)*** 1.062 (0.776–1.454)***
Marital status (single) 1.351 (0.873–2.088) 1.050 (1.037–1.062) 1.043 (1.032–1.055)
Educational level (low) 2.609 (1.784–3.814)*** 0.777 (0.583–1.037) 1.594 (1.212–2.095)***
Model χ 2 420.380*** 160.087*** 374.369***
−2 log likelihood 1163.329 1793.333 1899.906
Nagelkerke R 2 0.363 0.132 0.270
  1. * p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01, *** p ≤ 0.001. Reference groups for region and caste/tribe affiliation were Kerala (rural) and caste, respectively (largest groups). OR, odds ratio.