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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of older people in poor and good health in India

From: Smoking, physical activity and healthy aging in India

Characteristic Total Poor health Good health χ 2 t p
  n = 1679 n = 222 (13.2%) n = 1457 (86.8%)    
Punjab (urban) 6.9% 5.4% 7.1% 0.90   0.40
Punjab (rural) 17.0% 14.4% 17.4% 1.24   0.29
Rajasthan (urban) 5.2% 4.5% 5.4% 0.28   0.75
Rajasthan (rural) 19.5% 18.5% 19.8% 0.21   0.72
Kerala (urban) 8.0% 13.1% 7.1% 9.27   ≤0.01
Kerala (rural) 19.5% 33.8% 17.2% 33.75   ≤0.001
Karnataka (urban) 8.0% 1.8% 8.9% 13.30   ≤0.001
Karnataka (rural) 15.9% 8.6% 17.0% 10.32   ≤0.001
Scheduled castes 91.8% 95.5% 91.2% 4.70   ≤0.05
Scheduled tribes 5.4% 2.7% 5.8% 3.70   0.06
Non-scheduled castes/tribes 2.8% 1.8% 3.0% 0.94   0.51
Gender (female) 56.4% 59.9% 55.7% 1.38   0.25
Age [years; mean (SD)] 55.8 (11.9) 65.7 (12.8) 54.2 (11.0)   12.62 ≤0.001
Marital status (single) 19.4% 40.5% 16.3% 72.38   ≤0.001
Educational level (low) 69.8% 74.2% 69.2% 2.30   0.14
Smoking (yes) 18.1% 26.1% 16.9% 11.0   ≤0.001
Physical inactivity (vigorous) 73.0% 88.7% 70.7% 31.86   ≤0.001
Physical inactivity (moderate) 58.4% 67.1% 57.1% 8.03   ≤0.01
  1. p indicates differences between groups; physical inactivity was defined as engagement in activities once a week or less often. SD, standard deviation.