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Table 3 Adjusted and unadjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) for variables associated with neonatal mortality

From: Determinants of neonatal mortality in Nigeria: evidence from the 2008 demographic and health survey

Variables Unadjusted Adjusted^
HR [95% CI] P HR [95% CI] P
Community level factors       
Residence type       
Urban 1.00    1.00   
Rural 1.36 (1.11-1.66) 0.003 1.26 (1.03-1.55) 0.026
Geopolitical zone       
North Central 1.00      
North East 1.23 (0.98-1.55) 0.072    
North West 1.07 (0.85-1.37) 0.540    
South East 1.12 (0.79-1.59) 0.536    
South West 1.28 (0.97-1.68) 0.079    
South South 0.82 (0.59-1.14) 0.235    
Household wealth index       
Poor 1.45 (1.11-1.89) 0.006    
Middle 1.20 (0.91-1.59) 0.189    
Rich 1.00      
Individual related factors       
Mother’s religion       
Traditionalist and other 1.00      
Islam 0.80 (0.48-1.31) 0.370    
Catholic and other Christian 0.88 (0.53-1.45) 0.605    
Mother’s age at first birth       
Less than 20 years 1.00      
20 - 29 years 0.88 (0.75-1.04) 0.127    
30 - 49 years* 1.34 (0.85-2.13) 0.209    
Mother’s age       
< 20 4.02 (2.99-5.40) < 0.001 4.07 (2.83-5.86) < 0.001
20-29 1.12 (0.93-1.33) 0.226 1.22 (1.00-1.49) 0.056
30-39 1.00    1.00   
40-49 1.34 (1.04-1.71) 0.023 1.27 (0.99-1.63) 0.063
Mother’s education       
No education 1.17 (0.96-1.43) 0.138    
Primary 1.20 (0.95-1.51) 0.168    
Secondary or higher 1.00      
Mother’s literacy level       
Cannot read at all 1.23 (1.03-1.46) 0.020    
Able to read 1.00      
Mother’s desire for pregnancy       
Wanted then 1.00      
Wanted later 1.07 (0.78-1.48) 0.670    
Wanted no more 1.17 (0.78-1.76) 0.442    
Individual related factors       
Mother’s body mass index       
BMI > 18.5 1.00      
BMI ≥ 18.5 1.08 (0.84-1.38) 0.566    
Missing       
Mother’s working status       
Not working 1.00      
Working 0.97 (0.83-1.15) 0.749    
Missing       
Sex of child       
Female 1.00    1.00   
Male 1.29 (1.11-1.51) 0.001 1.30 (1.12-1.53) 0.001
Mother’s perceived baby size       
Small or very small 2.17 (1.82-2.58) < 0.001 2.10 (1.77-2.50) < 0.001
Average or larger 1.00    1.00   
Birth order and birth interval       
First child 1.77 (1.38-2.25) < 0.001 1.32 (1.01-1.72) 0.040
2 or 3 child, interval > 2 1.00    1.00   
2 or 3 child, interval ≤ 2 1.78 (1.34-2.38) < 0.001 1.75 (1.31-2.34) < 0.001
4 or more child, interval > 2 1.28 (1.01-1.62) 0.039 1.36 (1.05-1.78) 0.022
4 or more child, interval ≤ 2 2.10 (1.64-2.70) < 0.001 2.19 (1.68-2.84) < 0.001
Mode of delivery       
Non-caesarean 1.00    1.00   
Caesarean section‴ 2.33 (1.54-3.51) < 0.001 2.80 (1.84-4.25) < 0.001
Delivery assistance       
Health professional 1.00      
non-Health professional 1.99 (0.84-1.17) 0.924    
Birth place of child       
Health facility 1.00      
Home 1.00 (0.84-1.17) 0.955    
  1. ‴Caesarean section is a combination of both elective and emergency caesarean.
  2. *Interval for 30–39 years and 40–49 years were merged.
  3. ^2,465 missing information were not included in the analysis.
  4. HR, hazard ratio; P-values based on Cox regression.