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Table 1 Estimates for the continuous part (trip distance) of the joint discrete-continuous model, Montreal 2008

From: Compliance potential mapping: a tool to assess potential contributions of walking towards physical activity guidelines

  Walking Car Transit
  Coefficient p-value Coefficient p-value Coefficient p-value
Constant 2.2718 0.000 Reference −3.1657 0.000
Personal characteristics
Age: Younger senior Reference Reference Reference
Age: Senior −0.1261 0.001 −0.0639 0.001 −0.1022 0.006
Age: Elder senior −0.2215 0.000 −0.1484 0.000 −0.2983 0.000
Gender 0.0284 0.351 −0.1157 0.000 −0.0609 0.035
Household: Single Reference Reference Reference
Household: Couple 0.0767 0.031 −0.0457 0.032 −0.0095 0.781
Household: Other 0.1073 0.025 −0.0865 0.001 0.0459 0.269
Occupation: Full-time −0.2132 0.000 0.3576 0.000 0.4770 0.000
Occupation: Part-time −0.0892 0.145 0.1811 0.000 0.3377 0.000
Occupation: Retired Reference Reference Reference
Occupation: At-home −0.0021 0.978 −0.1248 0.011 −0.0572 0.448
Income: <20 k Reference Reference Reference
Income: 20–40 k −0.0265 0.558 −0.0519 0.129 0.0294 0.482
Income: 40–60 k 0.0525 0.363 0.0763 0.031 0.0382 0.463
Income: 60–80 k 0.0681 0.327 0.0200 0.605 0.0627 0.341
Income: 80–100 k 0.2877 0.000 0.1718 0.000 −0.0355 0.673
Income: g100k 0.3490 0.000 0.0561 0.161 −0.1444 0.056
Income: RF/DK 0.0949 0.027 −0.0029 0.928 0.0048 0.908
Mobility tools
Driver licence 0.0769 0.041 0.1173 0.000 −0.0200 0.528
Vehicle own: 0 Reference Reference Reference
Vehicle own: 1 −0.3596 0.000 0.4320 0.000 −0.2659 0.000
Vehicle own: 2 −0.5863 0.000 0.6270 0.000 −0.4162 0.000
Vehicle own: 3+ −0.7427 0.000 0.5734 0.000 −0.2216 0.072
Neighborhood characteristics
Population density: Low Reference Reference Reference
Population density: Med −0.0345 0.573 −0.0545 0.022 0.1083 0.057
Population density: High −0.0541 0.389 −0.0876 0.001 0.072 0.210
Job density: Low Reference Reference Reference
Job density: Medium 0.0927 0.008 −0.0716 0.000 0.2022 0.000
Job density: High 0.1607 0.001 −0.0040 0.877 0.7646 0.000
Street density 0.0109 0.008 −0.0080 0.001 −0.0001 0.989
Intersection den −0.0009 0.022 0.0007 0.010 −0.0001 0.868
BSF to DA −0.0966 0.550 −0.2363 0.018 −0.4847 0.004
Land use mix −0.0159 0.802 −0.0336 0.343 0.0074 0.913
Accessibility
Activity locations (400 m) −0.7184 0.002 0.0592 0.732 0.0939 0.720
Nearest pharmacy 0.2214 0.000 0.0291 0.163 −0.1171 0.022
Nearest health facility 0.1308 0.150 −0.0685 0.032 −0.0121 0.889
Nearest bank −0.1958 0.000 0.1343 0.000 0.0784 0.026
Nearest grocery 0.5091 0.000 −0.0208 0.514 −0.0187 0.828
Nearest library 0.0371 0.018 −0.0054 0.443 0.0075 0.610
Trend surface (quadratic)
Latitude −1.6621 0.000 0.0405 0.513 1.5200 0.000
Longitude −0.6857 0.006 0.2362 0.002 0.6818 0.006
Latitude*Longitude 0.0043 0.956 −0.0885 0.008 −0.0884 0.255
Latitude squared 0.2301 0.000 0.0283 0.139 −0.1932 0.002
Longitude squared 0.3994 0.000 −0.0116 0.628 −0.3064 0.000
Distance to CBD (km) −1.2353 0.000 0.2750 0.000 1.4113 0.000
Summary statistics
Number of observations = 31,631 Correlation between discrete and continuous models = −0.472 Sigma = 1.084  
Log Likelihood (Constant only model) = −77,468.43 Log Likelihood (Full model) = −65,771.60
McFadden's adjusted-ρ 2 = 0.1485 Likelihood ratio test = 23,393.66 (p < 0.0001)
  1. Note: gray cells indicate p > 0.10.