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Table 2 Determinants of stunting

From: Correlates of stunting among children in Ghana

Variable Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Distal factors    
Age in months    
Less than 6 (ref) 1.00 1.00 1.00
6-11 2.73** 2.74** 2.69**
12-23 7.84** 7.95*** 7.84***
24-35 9.89*** 10.24*** 10.11***
36-47 10.42*** 11.14*** 11.10***
48-59 9.27*** 10.17*** 10.18***
Sex    
Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
Female 0.85 0.84 0.84
Educational level    
No education (ref) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Primary 1.31 1.27 1.28
Middle/JHS 1.13 1.23 1.14
Secondary and above 1.14 1.14 1.16
Wealth Status    
Poorest (ref) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Poorer 0.89 0.89 0.87
Middle 0.60** 0.60** 0.59**
Richer 0.43*** 0.43*** 0.43***
Richest 0.29*** 0.32*** 0.32***
Ethnicity    
Akan (ref) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Ga/Dangme 0.70 0.70 0.70
Ewe 0.57 0.55** 0.55**
Mole-dagbani 0.84 0.83 0.82
Others 0.99 1.02 1.03
Region    
Western (ref) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Central 1.56 1.48 1.48
Greater Accra 0.93 0.88 0.88
Volta 1.18 1.19 1.20
Eastern 1.67** 1.66** 1.65
Ashanti 0.99 0.97 0.97
Brong Ahafo 0.77 0.76 0.75
Northern 1.22 1.16 1.14
Upper East 1.30 1.28 1.29
Upper West 0.72 0.69 0.68
Intermediate factors NA   
Household size NA   
1-4 (ref) NA 1.00 1.00
5-8 NA 0.79 0.79
9+ NA 0.98 0.99
Mother’s age    
15-24 (ref) NA 1.00 1.00
25-34 NA 0.72** 0.72**
35-44 NA 0.56** 0.56***
45 an above NA 0.54 0.54
Number of children    
1-4 (ref) NA 1.00 1.00
5-8 NA 1.33 1.34**
9-14 NA 1.65 1.66
Proximal factor    
Incidence of diarrhoea    
Yes NA NA 1.00
No NA NA 1.10
  1. Source: Computed from 2008 GDHS dataset: ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.05.
  2. P-values in parenthesis; ref = reference.