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Table 4 Multivariate associations of socio-demographic and school-level factors with children’s engagement in active transportation

From: A cross-sectional examination of socio-demographic and school-level correlates of children’s school travel mode in Ottawa, Canada

Variable Categories OR 95% CI p
Gender Boys 1.99 1.30-3.03 .002
Girls Reference
School travel time <5 minutes 2.26 1.17-4.37 .015
5-15 minutes 2.27 1.27-4.03 .006
>15 minutes Reference
School language French 0.71 0.31-1.62 .411
English Reference
School administrator survey variables
Identify safe routes to school Yes 1.03 0.52-2.04 .935
No Reference
Provides crossing guards Yes 2.29 1.22-4.30 .010
No Reference
Crime perceived as problem* Major/moderate 3.34 1.34-8.32 .010
Minor 1.19 0.68-2.08 .543
Not a problem Reference
School audit variables
Traffic calming measures Yes 1.06 0.52-2.16 .865
No Reference
Safe routes to school X Traffic calming interaction Both yes 7.87 2.85-21.76 <.001
  Both no Reference
  1. Note: Odds ratios for engaging in active transportation were estimated using generalized linear mixed models adjusted only for school clustering. Only variables that were significantly associated with active school transport in the bivariate models (e.g., Tables 1, 2, 3) were included in the multivariate model. In the empty model, the school ICC was 0.31 (p < 0.001) while in the fully adjusted model, it was 0.01 (p = 0.718). *Denotes that fewer than 5 schools have one of the categories being compared; these results should be interpreted with caution.