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Table 3 Associations between residential greenness, defined using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in Munich and Wesel study areas

From: A cross-sectional analysis of the effects of residential greenness on blood pressure in 10-year old children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies

 Model  NDVIa Munich (n = 1,256) Wesel (n = 822)
   Systolic blood pressure Diastolic blood pressure Systolic blood pressure Diastolic blood pressure
   ßb SEc p-value ß SE p-value ß SE p-value ß SE p-value
Crude Low 1.08 0.66 0.099 1.06 0.51 0.039 1.05 0.88 0.229 0.40 0.60 0.509
Moderate 2.33 0.66 < 0.001 1.47 0.51 0.004 -0.21 0.88 0.814 0.31 0.60 0.609
High ref. - - ref. - - ref. - - ref. - -
Adjusted d Low 1.02 0.63 0.106 1.08 0.50 0.030 0.63 0.80 0.435 0.47 0.57 0.411
Moderate 2.22 0.63 < 0.001 1.46 0.50 0.004 -0.26 0.80 0.746 0.22 0.57 0.696
High ref. - - ref. - - ref. - - ref. - -
Temperature-adjusted e Low 0.96 0.63 0.128 1.05 0.50 0.035 0.60 0.80 0.453 0.56 0.57 0.324
Moderate 2.19 0.63 0.001 1.43 0.50 0.004 -0.46 0.80 0.564 0.37 0.57 0.516
High ref. - - ref. - - ref. - - ref. - -
Altitude-adjusted f Low 0.68 0.66 0.304 0.97 0.52 0.063 0.62 0.81 0.443 0.45 0.57 0.433
Moderate 2.01 0.64 0.002 1.39 0.51 0.006 -0.29 0.80 0.719 0.17 0.57 0.764
High ref. - - ref. - - ref. - - ref. - -
Urbanisation-adjusted g Low 0.95 0.66 0.149 1.03 0.52 0.049 0.56 0.87 0.517 0.40 0.62 0.521
Moderate 2.09 0.66 0.001 1.36 0.52 0.009 -0.37 0.82 0.649 0.17 0.58 0.767
High ref. - - ref. - - ref. - - ref. - -
PM 2.5 –adjusted h Low 0.96 0.63 0.130 1.16 0.50 0.021 0.37 0.95 0.693 0.35 0.67 0.601
Moderate 2.18 0.64 0.001 1.53 0.50 0.002 -0.41 0.83 0.624 0.17 0.59 0.773
High ref. - - ref. - - ref. - - ref. - -
PM 10 –adjusted i Low 1.20 0.66 0.068 1.38 0.52 0.008 0.41 1.02 0.687 0.97 0.72 0.179
Moderate 2.33 0.64 < 0.001 1.64 0.51 0.001 -0.39 0.84 0.645 0.42 0.60 0.483
High ref. - - ref. - - ref. - - ref. - -
NO 2 –adjusted j Low 1.08 0.67 0.110 1.36 0.53 0.011 0.66 0.93 0.481 0.38 0.66 0.566
Moderate 2.26 0.65 0.001 1.65 0.52 0.001 -0.28 0.83 0.735 0.18 0.59 0.762
High ref. - - ref. - - ref. - - ref. - -
Noise annoyance-adjusted k Low 1.02 0.63 0.106 1.06 0.50 0.033 0.70 0.81 0.385 0.49 0.57 0.387
  Moderate 2.18 0.63 0.001 1.44 0.50 0.004 -0.20 0.81 0.806 0.21 0.57 0.711
  High ref. -   - ref.  -  - ref. -   - ref.  - - 
  1. a. Greenness tertiles are different in Munich and Wesel areas. Munich: Low (NDVI < 0.307), Moderate (0.307 ≤ NDVI < 0.377), High (NDVI ≥ 0.377). Wesel: Low (NDVI < 0.382), Moderate (0.382 ≤ NDVI < 465), High (NDVI ≥ 0.465).
  2. b. ß: Regression coefficient.
  3. c. SE: Standard error.
  4. d. Adjusted model is adjusted for study, sex, age, BMI, season of BP measurements, parental education and parental hypertension.
  5. e. Temperature-adjusted model: Adjusted model and further adjustment for mean daily temperature on the day of BP measurements. The variable for the season of BP measurements has been removed.
  6. f. Altitude-adjusted model: Adjusted model and further adjustment for altitude of residence.
  7. g. Urbanisation-adjusted model: Adjusted model and further adjustment for tertiles of population density in a 5,000 m buffer around the residence.
  8. h. PM2.5-adjusted model: Adjusted model and further adjustment for PM2.5 concentration at residence.
  9. i. PM10-adjusted model: Adjusted model and further adjustment for PM10 concentration at residence.
  10. j. NO2-adjusted model: Adjusted model and further adjustment for NO2 concentration at residence.
  11. k. Noise annoyance-adjusted model: Adjusted model and further adjustment for level of noise annoyance.
  12. Bold text indicates statistical significance at the 5 % level.