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Table 2 Associations between residential greenness, defined using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure

From: A cross-sectional analysis of the effects of residential greenness on blood pressure in 10-year old children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies

 Model  NDVIa Systolic blood pressure Diastolic blood pressure
   ßb SEc p-value ßb SEc p-value
Crude d Low 1.07 0.53 0.043 0.80 0.39 0.041
Moderate 1.32 0.53 0.012 1.01 0.39 0.010
High ref. - - ref. - -
Adjusted e Low 0.90 0.50 0.073 0.80 0.38 0.033
Moderate 1.23 0.50 0.014 0.96 0.38 0.011
High ref. - - ref. - -
Temperature-adjusted f Low 0.83 0.50 0.098 0.83 0.38 0.027
Moderate 1.12 0.50 0.025 1.00 0.38 0.008
High ref. - - ref. - -
Altitude-adjusted g Low 0.79 0.50 0.115 0.71 0.38 0.061
Moderate 1.16 0.50 0.021 0.90 0.38 0.017
High ref. - - ref. - -
Urbanisation-adjusted h Low 0.82 0.53 0.125 0.73 0.40 0.069
Moderate 1.11 0.52 0.032 0.87 0.39 0.024
High ref. - - ref. - -
PM 2.5 –adjusted i Low 0.73 0.52 0.161 0.93 0.39 0.017
Moderate 1.13 0.51 0.026 1.03 0.38 0.007
High ref. - - ref. - -
PM 10 –adjusted j Low 0.96 0.54 0.074 1.15 0.40 0.004
Moderate 1.26 0.51 0.014 1.14 0.38 0.003
High ref. - - ref. - -
NO 2 –adjusted k Low 0.85 0.54 0.118 1.01 0.41 0.014
Moderate 1.20 0.52 0.021 1.08 0.39 0.006
High ref. - - ref. - -
Noise annoyance-adjusted l Low 0.90 0.50 0.074 0.80 0.38 0.034
  Moderate 1.23 0.50 0.015 0.97 0.38 0.011
  High ref.  -  - ref.  -  -
  1. a. Greenness tertiles are area-specific. Munich: Low (NDVI < 0.307), Moderate (0.307 ≤ NDVI < 0.377), High (NDVI ≥ 0.377). Wesel: Low (NDVI < 0.382), Moderate (0.382 ≤ NDVI < 465), High (NDVI ≥ 0.465).
  2. b. ß: Regression coefficient.
  3. c. SE: Standard error.
  4. d. Crude model is adjusted for study centre.
  5. e. Adjusted model is adjusted for study centre, study, sex, age, BMI, season of BP measurements, parental education, and parental hypertension.
  6. f. Temperature-adjusted model: Adjusted model and further adjustment for mean daily temperature on the day of BP measurements. The variable for the season of BP measurements has been removed.
  7. g. Altitude-adjusted model: Adjusted model and further adjustment for altitude of residence. The variable for the study centre has been removed.
  8. h. Urbanisation-adjusted: Adjusted model and further adjustment for study-specific tertiles of population density in a 5,000 m buffer around the residence.
  9. i. PM2.5-adjusted model: Adjusted model and further adjustment for PM2.5 concentration at residence.
  10. j. PM10-adjusted model: Adjusted model and further adjustment for PM10 concentration at residence.
  11. k. NO2-adjusted model: Adjusted model and further adjustment for NO2 concentration at residence.
  12. l. Noise annoyance-adjusted model: Adjusted model and further adjustment for level of noise annoyance.
  13. Bold text indicates statistical significance at the 5 % level.