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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants

From: A cross-sectional analysis of the effects of residential greenness on blood pressure in 10-year old children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies

  N (%) or Mean ± SDaor Median (IQRb)
  Pooled (N = 2,078) Munich (N = 1,256) Wesel (N = 822)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)§* 111.3 ± 10.0 110.0 ± 9.6 113.2 ± 10.2
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)§* 64.2 ± 7.5 62.9 ± 7.5 66.0 ± 7.0
Study*    
   GINIplus observational group 773 (37.2) 370 (29.5) 403 (49.0)
   GINIplus interventional group 754 (36.3) 448 (35.6) 306 (37.2)
   LISAplus 551 (26.5) 438 (34.9) 113 (13.8)
Sex    
   Male 1,071 (51.5) 654 (52.1) 417 (50.7)
   Female 1,007 (48.5) 602 (47.9) 405 (49.3)
Age (years)§* 10.2 ± 0.2 10.2 ± 0.2 10.3 ± 0.2
BMI (kg/m2)§* 17.4 ± 2.5 17.0 ± 2.3 18.0 ± 2.7
Season of blood pressure measurements    
   Winter 418 (20.1) 272 (21.7) 146 (17.7)
   Spring 495 (23.8) 302 (24.0) 193 (23.5)
   Summer 615 (29.6) 356 (28.3) 259 (31.5)
   Autumn 550 (26.5) 326 (26.0) 224 (27.3)
Parental educationc*    
   Low 135 (6.5) 55 (4.4) 80 (9.7)
   Medium 538 (25.9) 224 (17.8) 314 (38.2)
   High 1,405 (67.6) 977 (77.8) 428 (52.1)
Parental hypertensiond    
   Yes 316 (15.2) 202 (16.1) 114 (13.9)
   No 1,762 (84.8) 1,054 (83.9) 708 (86.1)
Residential surrounding greenness (NDVIe)§* in a 500 m buffer around the residence    
   Low - 0.255 ± 0.045 0.340 ± 0.035
   Moderate - 0.341 ± 0.020 0.425 ± 0.024
   High - 0.445 ± 0.057 0.524 ± 0.041
Mean daily temperature on the day of blood pressure measurements (°C)* 12.0 (10.4) 10.9 (11.3) 13.0 (9.1)
Altitude of residence (m)* 498.0 (509.0) 532.0 (44.0) 26 (17)
Population density around residence (people/km2)§f*    
   Low - 304.2 ± 152.0 176.2 ± 47.8
   Moderate - 1,558.6 ± 702.5 352.0 ± 93.1
   High - 5,479.8 ± 1,747.7 883.8 ± 292.7
PM2.5 concentration at residence (μg/m3)§* 14.9 ± 2.2 13.3 ± 0.9 17.4 ± 0.7
PM10 concentration at residence (μg/m3)§* 22.2 ± 3.3 20.0 ± 2.3 25.4 ± 1.3
NO2 concentration at residence (μg/m3)§* 21.3 ± 4.8 19.8 ± 5.1 23.6 ± 3.0
Road traffic noise annoyanceg    
   Low 1,367 (65.8) 821 (65.4) 546 (66.4)
   Medium 608 (29.2) 371 (29.5) 237 (28.8)
   High 103 (5.0) 64 (5.1) 39 (4.8)
  1. a. SD: Standard deviation.
  2. b. IQR: Interquartile range.
  3. c. Low: < 10 years of school; Medium: 10 years of school; High > 10 years of school, according to the German education system.
  4. d. No: neither of the parents had hypertension; Yes: one or both parents had hypertension.
  5. e. NDVI: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; categorized into tertiles.
  6. f. Population density derived in 5,000 m buffers around residences and categorized into tertiles.
  7. g. Low: categories 0 and 1 (no annoyance at all when the window is open); Medium:
  8. categories 2 to 5; High: categories 6 to 10 (strong or unbearable annoyance).
  9. §. Mean ± SD.
  10. . Median (IQR).
  11. *indicates statistically significant difference at the 5 % level between the Munich and Wesel areas.