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Table 2 Beliefs about TB causation as described by 35 TB patients in Vanuatu: 2011-2012

From: Tuberculosis patients’ knowledge and beliefs about tuberculosis: a mixed methods study from the Pacific Island nation of Vanuatu

Description of cause* Number Percentage
Smoking 9 26
Food^ 7 20
Kava 6 17
Alcohol 5 14
Hard work 4 11
Kastom 4 11
Poor nutrition 3 9
Coughing 2 6
Bacteria# 2 6
Sharing eating utensils 2 6
Stress and worry 2 6
Hereditary 2 6
Food prepared by a menstruating woman 1 3
Inadequate rest 1 3
Marijuana 1 3
Weakness 1 3
Skin infection 1 3
Accident followed by blood clots 1 3
  1. *The TB patients described more than one cause of TB.
  2. Therefore these percentages do not add up to 100.
  3. ^Two responses in the food category were about eating food that may have been forbidden or poisoned. Therefore these responses could also be included under kastom.
  4. #These responses indicated that the bacteria were either present in meat or feed off blood.