Skip to main content

Table 2 Demographic and smoking-related characteristics of control versus intervention groups

From: Impact of additional counselling sessions through phone calls on smoking cessation outcomes among smokers in Penang State, Malaysia

Characteristics Group type Pvaluea
  Control Intervention  
  N = 111 N = 120  
Participants’ category    0.025
Referred from outside-hospital clinic 40 (36.0%) 30 (25.0%)  
Referred from outpatient clinic 71 (64.0%) 85 (70.8%)  
Walk-in 0 (0%) 5 (4.2%)  
Age (mean ± SD) (years) 48.30 ± 13.6 48.22 ± 13.8 0.964b
Weight (mean ± SD) (kg) 62.77 ± 6.6 61.46 ± 9.8 0.499c
Sex    0.502d
Female 3 (2.7%) 6 (5.0%)  
Male 108 (97.3%) 114 (95.0%)  
Race    0.063
Malay 49 (44.1%) 39 (32.5%)  
Chinese 53 (47.7%) 61 (50.8%)  
Indian 9 (8.1%) 20 (16.7%)  
Marital Status    0.086
Single 22 (19.8%) 20 (16.7%)  
Divorced/Widow 10 (9.0%) 23 (19.2%)  
Married 79 (71.2%) 77 (64.2%)  
Education status    0.718
Primary 54 (48.6%) 55 (45.8%)  
Secondary 46 (41.4%) 54 (45.0%)  
Collage/University 11 (9.9%) 10 (8.3%)  
No formal education 0 (0%) 1 (0.8%)  
Chronic Disease    0.519
No 6 (5.4%) 4 (3.3%)  
Yes 105 (94.6%) 116 (96.7%)  
Smoking habits/history    
No. of Cigarettes smoked/day 14.54 ± 7.6 13.08 ± 6.3 0.111c
Age started smoking 17.52 ± 4.07 17.24 ± 3.8 0.931c
Duration of smoking 31.09 ± 13.5 30.97 ± 13.9 0.946b
Breath Co level 14.93 ± 5.2 14.00 ± 4.4 0.300c
FTND-M score 3.88 ± 1.2 3.71 ± .1 0.323c
Other smokers in household    0.214d
No 77 (69.4%) 73 (60.8%)  
Yes 34 (30.6%) 47 (39.2%)  
Previous smoking attempt    0.105d
No 102 (91.9%) 101 (84.2%)  
Yes 9 (8.1%) 19 (15.8%)  
Chance rate to quit    0.916
Very high 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
High 28 (25.2%) 33 (27.5%)  
Neutral 67 (60.4%) 71 (59.2%)  
Low 16 (14.4%) 16 (13.3%)  
Very low 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
  1. aChi-square (χ2) test, bIndependent sample t-test, cMann–Whitney U test, dFisher’s exact test.